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II. ITALIC (a) Latin. In Latin the doublets in-, ne- occur in a few instances: infandus ‘unspeakable'

nefandus infans 'unspeaking'

nefans 'heinous'

nefas 'unlawful'28 infrendis 'toothless'


nesapius 'unwise inscius 'ignorant

nescius (Cf. also nēmo ‘no one' for *ne-hemo; nihil 'nothing' for *ne-hilo"; nimis 'excessively' for *ne-mis; non 'not' for *ne-oinom; nullus 'none' for *ne-oin(o)los; nunquam 'never' for *ne-unquam.24)

The grade *nē- appears in -quam 'worthless,' -quiquam 'vainly, fruitlessly,' etc.25

In the Romance dialects Italian niente, Old French neiant, noiant, Modern French néant 'nothing' are derived by Körting from *ne-gent, though others trace them to *nec-entem or to nec inde.27

(6) Osco-Umbrian. As Kretschmer has rightly seen,28 since n is represented in Osco-Umbrian by en 29 an-, the negative prefix of these dialects (Oscan an-censto 'non censa,' a-miricatud 'non mercato,' am-pert ‘non trans,' am-prufid 'improbe'; Umbrian aan-fehtaf ‘non coctas,' an-hostatu 'non hastatos,' an-šihitu non cinctos,' an-takres 'integris,' a-seçeta 'non secta,' a-snata 'non umecta,' w-uirseto 'non visum'),30 must represent a different grade. This is probably the same as that found in Greek åupaoin, i.e. the full grade I a (*an-).

The Italic grades are, then, the second prolonged grade (*ne-) in Latin nē-quam; the full grade I a (*an-) in Oscan an-censto; the full grade II b (*ne-) in Latin ne-fandus; and the null-grade (*n-) in Latin in-fans.

23 Hamilton 29, finds the origin of nefas in ne fas (est).
24 Walde 514, 519-22, 528f.
2 Ib. 517, 510.

26 Lateinisch-Romanisches Wörterbucha No. 6489, Paderborn, 1901; the Rumanian negative prefix ne- (e.g. neatent 'inattentive') is of Bulgarian, not Romance, origin (Tiktin, Rumänisches Elementarbuch 115, Heidelberg, 1905).

17 Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 435, Heidelberg, 1924. 28 KZ 31. 407.

29 Von Planta, Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte, 1.315-18, Strassburg, 1892-7; for other theories see ib. I. 319 f., Walde? 381.

30 Von Planta, 1. 319-320, 2. 469; Buck, Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian 64, 192, Boston, 1904. For the omission of n in amiricatud, etc., see von Planta, 1. 52, 301, 308-13, and Buck 70 f.; for the long vowel in aan-fehtaf (if the reading is correct; cf. von Planta, 1. 206, Buck 47) see Niedermann, Historische Lautlehre des Lateinischen?. 33 f., Heidelberg, 1911; Sommer, Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre, 120, Heidelberg, 1914.

III. INDIAN Here three grades are found: g(n)- very frequently; na- rarely; and ana- only in Prākrit, Pāli, and Modern Indian. (a) Sanskrit. 31 acira ‘not long

nacira a puřstva 'unmanliness'

nápumsaka ‘neuter'

namura 'immortality' avidya 'ignorance'

navidya 'ignorant' (6) Prākrit. Hemacandra's grammar states:32 aņa nāim nañarthe, "ana (and) naim (are used) in the sense of nan (the negative na and the privative particle).' The following words show this aņa: aņa-cintia: Sanskrit a-cintita 'unthought'; aņa-cchiāra: Sanskrit a-chinná 'uncut'; aņa-dihira: Sanskrit á-dirgha 'unlong'; aņa-milia 'disunited' (cf. Sanskrit a-milint); aņa-rāmaa 'loveless'; ana-rikka: Sanskrit a-rikta 'not empty'; ana-happaņaya 'undestroyed'; ana-hiaa: Sanskrit a-hrdaya 'heartless'; ana-honta 'non-existent' (cf. Sanskrit a-bhavya); as well as a number of others. Several words show the form ņa-, 33 notably »egaso: Sanskrit an-eka śas 'manifold' (cf. Pali n-eka); n-anta: Sanskrit an-anta 'endless';

‘endless'; na-pahutta: Sanskrit a-prabhūta 'insufficient'; na-sahiāloa: Sanskrit a-sodhāloka 'unconquerable world.'

(c) Pāli. For this dialect Burlingame has adduced three words with ana-: ana-bhāva 'non-being': a-bhāva; ana-mata 'immortal': a-mata; ana-matagga 'of unknown beginning.°34 As in Prākrit, na- also occurs, as in na-nikāmaseyyā 'uncomfortable bed' (cf. Sanskrit a-nikāmam); n-apparūpa 'abundant: an-appa; na-bhikkhu 'non-priest'; na-vāriya 'irresistible' (cf. Sanskrit a-vārya); n-āla panta 'not speaking' (cf. Sanskrit an-āla pana); n-eļa 'sinless' (cf. Sanskrit an-enás); n-ariya ‘unsanctified': an-ariya; n-icchamānaka 'unwilling' (cf. Sanskrit anicchant).


31 Two of the forms regarded by Whitney (Sanskrit Grammar.? 411, Boston, 1891) as containing ana- (anakāmamāra, anavadya) are explicable as of the type of an-e-kasmāt ‘not without a “why,”' and the third (anavi prayukta) is probably an error for anati prayukta (cf. Burlingame 299 f.).

* 2. 190 (ed. Pischel, Halle, 1877-80).

33 Whether Pischel (Grammatik 127) is correct in explaining this ņa- as apocopated from ana- is not wholly certain.

44 The third word is for *ana-mata-agga (Burlingame, AJP 41. 69 [1920]); cf. also Andersen, locc. citl.

35 Childers, Dictionary of the Pali Language 254, London, 1875.

(d) Modern Indian. Pischel36 has noted the existence of ana- in Marāthi, Gujarāți, Hindi, Sindhi, and Panjābi; but Bloch, 37 on the other hand, recognises only an- or an- in these languages. In Singhalese a(n)is replaced in popular speech by n-;38 and in Gypsy the form is na-3

In Indian, then, the grades are: the full grade II a (*.né-) in Prakrit aņa-milia; the full grade II b (*ne-) in Sanskrit na-cira; and the nullgrade (*n-) in Sanskrit a-cira.



The only dialects here concerned are Avesta, Middle and New Persian, and Ossetic.

(a) Avesta. Besides the ordinary form in a(n)- (e.g. a-karana ‘endless,' a-gušta 'unheard,' a-xŠata ‘uninjured,' a-jyāti 'non-life,' a-daēvayasna 'not worshipping demons,' a-paitita Sunatoned,' e-panti 'non-way,' a-friðyant "undecaying,' an-ayra 'without beginning,' a-mar atât 'immortality,' a-yaožda 'defilement,' a-va čah 'voiceless,' a-radwya ‘untimely,' a-sūra 'unstrong,' a-zarafant 'unaging,' a-fåta 'joyless,' a-huta “unpressed,' a-x' arata 'unseizable'), six words are recorded in ana-:40 ana-maraždika 'merciless,' ana-saxta 'whose time has not yet come,' ana-zqda ‘unborn' (cf. a-zāta), ana-šita 'uninhabitable,' anaxoarəba 'foodless' (cf. 2-xoar), and ana-x®āsta 'uncooked' (cf. a-x'āsta). There is no instance of na- in nominal formations, but the full grade II b of a secondary base *anei- (*nei-) appears in naē-čiš 'no one" (cf. Lithuanian na-kas 'no one'). 42

(6) Middle Persian. Here a(n)- is very common, as in a-būrdfarman 'disobedient,' a-drögih "unfalsity,' a-gazand 'uninjured,' a-āmak ‘unwilling,' a-pirūzkar 'unsuccessful,' a-radxūdai 'masterless,' a-vanās 'sinless,' an-ākās 'ignorant, an-ajarm 'dishonoured,' an-amurj 'pitiless,' an-ošak 'immortal.' The form na- seems to appear in nafrin ‘non-blessing, curse.'

(c) Modern Persian. The form a(n)- has disappeared in Modern Persian, where it has been replaced by nā- which becomes na- before two consonants. 43 Here belong, for instance, -pāk 'impure' (cf. Pāzand nā-pāki), -durust 'unright,' -xuftagān 'not having slept,' -umid 'hopeless,' -xūb 'unlovely,' -s'pās ‘unthankful beside na-spās, -yafta 'unfound,' -b "pure' (Avesta an-apa 'waterless, unmixed (wine),' Armenian loan-word anapak), na-finās 'ignorant' beside na-fnās (Pāzand nā-fnās), -gah 'unexpected' (Middle Persian an-ākāsihă 'unexpectedly'), na-k 'polluted' (Middle Persian an-ak).

36 BB 3. 244.
37 La Formation de la langue marathe 287, Paris, 1920.
38 Geiger, Etymologie des Singhalesischen, 4, 43, Munich, 1897.

39 Miklosich, Ueber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's, 10, 72, Vienna, 1880.

40 Bartholomae, Altiranisches Wörterbuch, coll. 119-22.
41 Ib. 1030.
49 Ib. 1033.

(d) Ossetic. This dialect shows only änä- (as in änä-käron 'endless': Avesta a-karana, änä-melge 'immortal': Avesta a-masa) beside ä(n)(as in ä-domd 'unbound,' än-amond 'unlucky'), ä(n)- corresponding to Avesta a(n)- and änä- apparently of the same grade as Avesta ana-“

The Iranian grades are, then, the following: the second prolonged grade (*nē-) in Modern Persian -durust; the full grade II a (*.né-) in Avesta ana-$ita and Ossetic änä-käron; the full grade II b (*ne-) in Middle Persian na-frin (?); and the null-grade (*n-) in Avesta a-karana.

V. CELTIC The ordinary n-privative here is of the null-grade (*n-), as in Gaulish an-m[at] 'bad’45; Old Irish an-humal 'not humble,' in-derb 'uncertain,' é-trocar ‘merciless,' Welsh an-newr 'cowardly', Old Cornish af-lauar 'speechless,' Old Breton an-guo 'inaequalitas,' an-útondu 'periuria."

.?46 Nevertheless, the full grade II b (*ne-) seems to occur in Old Irish nech, Welsh neb, Cornish, Breton nep, neb 'any one,' for *nekyo- (cf. Sanskrit -kis ‘no one,' Lithuanian ne-kds 'not any one')*7.

VI. TEUTONIC Beside the usual null-grade (*n-), appearing in Teutonic as un-, there seem to be two cases of the reduced grade b of the secondary base *ane

48 Horn, Grundriss der neu persischen Etymologie 263, Strassburg, 1893. He connects this nā- with Greek m- (Grundriss, 1. 2. 193); but Hübschmann (Persische Studien 100, Strassburg, 1895), on the basis of such Pāzand words as nò-dānafni 'ignorance' nă-kam ‘unwilling,' -pāki 'impurity,' -šnās ‘not understanding' (Shikand-Gamânik Vijar, ed. Jāmāsp-Āsānā and West 259, Bombay, 1887), associates it rather with Old Persian naiy ‘not.' A closer connexion, however, would be with Avesta naē-čiš, nae-čim 'not at all,' na e-čā ‘and not' (cf. Bartholomae, coll. 1033, 1034).

“ Hübschmann, Etymologie und Lautlehre der ossetischen Sprache 17, 21, Strassburg, 1887; Miller, Sprache der Osseten 84, 95, Strassburg, 1903.

46 Cf. Dottin, La Langue gauloise 106, 227, Paris, 1920. 46 Loth, Vocabulaire vieux-breton 40-41, 42, Paris, 1884; cf. Henry, Lexique étymologique (*ana-) in Old High German una-odhi difficulty' beside un-odhi, and una-holda 'devil' beside un-holda, 48 parallels being found in the Greek type of ανά-γνωστος.

du breton moderne 10, Rennes, 1900.

47 Pedersen, 2. 212; Stokes, Urkeltischer Sprachschalz 190, Göttingen, 1894. Henry (210) cites also Breton -me úr ‘not great' (but cf. Old Irish nach mór 'almost' (Pedersen, 447), and Welsh ne-mawr 'not much,' for *neb mawr (Jones 313), né-pred 'never,'

(The grade *ne- is not found in Teutonic compounds, for Old High German ni-wiht'nothing' (Modern High German nicht) and nio 'never' (Modern High German nie) are late formations still represented in Gothic by the separate words ni waihts 'oudev' (Mark vii. 15), and ni aiw oudénote' (Matthew ix. 33).49 Neither, contrary to Fowler, 50 does the type of Old High German a-wiggi 'wayless, astray,' Lombard d-mund 'without a guardian, free,'51 Anglo-Saxon é-menn 'depopulated,' belong here, since the pre-Teutonic form of the prefix is *ē.52)

VII. BALTO-SLAVIC In Old Church Slavic, Meillet has noted53 three probable occurrences of the null-grade (*n-) beside the full grade II b (*ne-), which is overwhelmingly predominant in the Balto-Slavic dialects: ne-je-sytt vulture, pelican,' beside ne-syti (cf. ne-sytŭ 'insatiable'), ne-je-ve-rů ‘unbelieving' (cf. ne-vera ‘unbelief'), and q-rodů 'stupid' (cf. ne-rodivů 'contemptuous, careless'), the meaning of ję-= *ņ- being forgotten in the first two words, whence the ordinary negative prefix ne- was added.

The second prolonged grade (*nē-) occurs, as in Greek m-kepohs, Modern Persian -pāk, and Latin -quam, in Old Church Slavic nekúto 'some one,' etc. ;64 and the full grade II b of the secondary base *anei- (*nei-) is found, as in Avesta nae-čis, in Old Church Slavic nikúto 'no one,' etc,56 as well as in Lithuanian -kas 'no one. '66

Omitting all formations from the base *ane-, as well as from its secondary bases *anē-, *anei-, etc., which are not found in any sort of com

-tra ‘nothing,' though Loth (Chrestomathie bretonne 501, Paris, 1890) more satisfactorily explains the two latter as for *nep pret and *nep tra. The view of Zimmer (KZ 24. 532-5) that ana- is found in Irish an-bsud 'unstable,' an-cride 'injustice,' an-chretem ‘unbelief,' is not accepted by Pedersen (1. 475; 2. 6, 8, 9, 246, 248), who, further, regards the second a in Scots Gaelic ana- (as in ana-blasda 'insipid') as due to svarabhakti (1. 330).

48 Graff, Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz, 1. 150, 4. 915, Berlin, 1834, 1838. 49 Cf. Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Spraches 326, Strassburg, 1915. 60 p. 32. 61 Bruckner, Sprache der Langobarden 122, 201, Strassburg, 1895. 62 Kluge, Grundrissa 476, 480. 68 Études sur l'étymologie et le vocabulaire du vieux slave 168 f., 232, Paris, 1902-05. u Miklosich, Lexicon Palaeoslovenico-Graeco-Latinum 458, Vienna, 1865. 66 16. 451. Brugmann, Grundrissä 1. 184, 190.


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