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The release of the syllabic į becomes the consonantal , that is articulated before the vowel e. The group ú+rr really becomes ir.



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Louis H. GRAY

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA The question of the mutual relation of the various privative nominal prefixes characterised by n in the Indo-European languages, as well as of these prefixes to the n-negative particles, has repeatedly been discussed from more than one point of view. Without recapitulating the theories already advanced, which may readily be ascertained from the appended bibliography, the problem may be examined anew in the light of all linguistic evidence now available. The fullest data are found in Greek, then in Italic, Indian, and Iranian; doublets of the type *^: *ne are rare in Celtic, Teutonic, and Balto-Slavic; they are not found in Armenian, which has only an=*n;' and their existence is questionable in Albanian.?

I. GREEK Here fve types are observed: ανάκεστος: ανήκεστος: νήκεστος;” ανάγνωστος: άγνωστος; and άμφασία. The material for the first three types, in the alphabetical order of the second component, is as follows: ανάκεστος 'incurable' ανήκεστος


(ακέομαι) avnklowtos 'pointless'

(ακιδωτός) åvhKovoTOS 'unheard' νήκουστος

(akobw) αναλήγητοι: duepuvot (Hesych.) ανηλεγής



vndiths "guiltless' (aletns) αναλειφία 'neglect of anointing' avhhelpos 'unanointed' νηλιφής

(αλείφω) Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, 1. 419, Leipzig, 1895.

* Pedersen (1. 45) would cite here Albanian ésɛlɛ 'fasting': sit 'breakfast,' and égel 'fasting': gele 'food,' but this is doubted by Barić, Albanorumänische Studien, 1. 59-60, Sarajevo, 1919.

* For the distribution of the in-compounds see Hamilton 61-62, and cf. ib. 11-13.

* For the type åbávaros : &bávatos, where the first of three short syllables is metrically lengthened in words of four or more syllables, see Hirt, Handbuch, 51, and for the Sanskrit ádeva "godless,' ásat 'non-being' (árūpita is too uncertain to admit of satisfactory discussion), see Wackernagel, 2. 131. The Modern Greek colloquial forms århuropos 'powerless': čutopû 'to be able,' &vnčevpos 'ignorant': teuploww 'to discover' are derived by Hatzidakis (Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik 431, Leipzig, 1892) from the colloquial forms ήμπορ(ε)ω, ήξεύρω. The colloquial ανηπρόκοπος “unprogressive' beside &#Pbkotos is apparently due to analogy with some compound where arm is justified.

αναμάρτητος “unerring”


(αμαρτάνω) ανάμελκτος “unmilked ανήμελκτος

(αμέλγω) ανήνεμος 'windless' νηνεμος

(άνεμος) ανάνιος 'painless' ανήνιος

(ανία) ανήνυστος impracticable

(ανύω) άνανδρος ‘unmanly' ανήνωρ

(ανήρ) ανάποινος unpunished


(άποινος) ανήρεστος unpleasing

(άρεστός) ανήρης “unjoined:

(άρω) ανάριθμος numberless’ ανήριθμος


(αριθμός) ανήρoτος 'unploughed'

(αρόω) ανέγερτος 'not to be

(εγείρω) waked' ανήγρετος

νήγρετος ανέλατος not ductile’ ανήλατος

(ελαύνω) ανελεήμων 'merciless' ανηλεήμων

(ελεήμων) ανελεής 'merciless' ανηλεής



νήπιος 'infans' (έπος) ανέρεικτος uncrushed’ ανήρεικτος

(épelkw) ανηρεφής roofless'

(ερέφω) ανερίθευτος unbribed’ ανηρίθευτος (Ionic)

(έριθεύομαι) ανέρικτος unpounded’ ανήρικτος (Ionic)

(épelkw) ανέριστος 'undisputed'


(έρις) άνηστις “ 'fasting νηστις

(εδω) ανόδους “toothless'


(οδούς) ανώδυνος painless' νώδυνος

(οδύνη) ανώιστος ‘unforeseen'

(οίομαι) ανόλεθρος “unruined’ ανωλεθρος

(όλεθρος) ανώμαλος unlike'

(ομαλός) ανώματος “unsworn’

(όμνυμι) ανονόμαστος “nameless' ανώνυμος


(όνομα) ανόροφος 'roofless' ανώροφος

(όροφος) ανόχυρος 'infirm' ανώχυρος

(όχυρός) The rather scanty material of the type ανάγνωστος : άγνωντος is, in Ancient Greek: ανάγνωστος absolutely secret: άγνωστος ανάεδνος “without bridal gifts'6 ανάελπτος “unhoped for7 ανάπνευστος “breathless’: άπνευστος ανάπταιστον το μή πταίον” (Suidas): άπταιστος

* Callimachus, frag. 422: μηδέν έθέλω καλόν έχεις ανάγνωστον; see Burlingame 301. This ανάγνωστος is, of course, quite other than the common ανάγνωστος readable.'

6 έδνον <* hεδνον >*ρεδνον (Boisacq 215).

1 έλπος <*γελπ-, 16. p. 246. For αάατος inviolable' see ib. 1-2, and Ehrlich, Untersuchungen über die Natur der griechischen Betonung 227, Berlin, 1912, the latter deriving it from *a-o afa-To-s 'disallowed'; đáo xetos 'irresistible' is derived by Schulze, Quaestiones Epicae 495. n. 1, Gütersloh, 1892, from *»-sn-sgh-eto-s 'quasi non continendus.'

In Modern Greek this use of ava- has received some extension, as is shown by the following examples, the colloquial forms being marked by C:8

C ανάβαθος senza profunditd: αβαθος
ανάβατος inaccessibile: άβατος
ανάβολος incomodo':C άβολος
avaßpákwtos 'sans-culotte': C &ßpákwtos
C avaßpetá, ávaßpoxý 'siccità': C åßpegla, áßpoxia
C ανάγνωρα unknown':C αγνώριμος
C &vakakos 'senza malizia': KAKOS
ανάκαρδα timid’: άκαρδα
ανακέφαλος headless”: ακέφαλος
C ανάμελος negligente': αμελής
C αναπάντεχος inatleso: C απάντεχος
αναπόλυφτος not urbane, rustic': απολίτευτος
C avágayos 'senza appetito':Cåvawayavos 'insaziabile'

Of the fifth type the sole examples in Greek, apart from the Homeric duparin 'speechlessness' beside åpaola,' are, possibly, árvévados 'cloudless' beside åvepelos (the latter metrically lengthened to avepalos, $ 45) and & logos 'crestless' (only K 258, where the variant reading is a lopos) beside άλοφος. 10

(The etymology of HKEOTOS ‘ungoaded' (?)!l-found thrice (Z 94, 275, 309) in the phrase βούς ήνις ηκέστας with the variant reading ακέστας -is quite uncertain. It is explained by Froehdel? as equivalent to a Sanskrit *āśasta 'hoped for, desired, praised.' One is half-tempted to associate the formation with that of Old High German awiggi 'wayless, astray' (cf. infra, VI); but the problem is yet too obscure to admit of satisfactory solution.18)

8 Brighenti, Dizionario greco-moderno-italiano, Milan, 1909; G. Meyer 11-12.

• Kretschmer, KZ 31. 407 (1902); Boisacq 57-58. Collitz, in Hamilton 11, suggests the division duq-aoin and connexion with the base *as(d)- 'to parch, wither'; Hatzidakis, 'Akaonueurd 'Ava yváouara, 2. 230, Athens, 1904, makes it a metrical formation on the analogy of άμβροτος “immortal” :βροτός.

10 In the Epidaurian poem of Isyllus, line 66, õjuopos is to be read instead of duropos (Baunack, Aus Epidauros 18, Leipzig, 1890).

[All examples of the type are probably metrical lengthenings, graphically designated in various ways. Cf. also Walde, Streitberg Festschrift 153 f. G.M.B.)

11 Cf. ηκέστης ο αδάμαστος (Suidas); ηκέστας δε αντί του αδαμάστoυς, ακεντήτους, ακενTplotous, &voXEUTOUS (Etymologicum Magnum, s. 0. Hvis; cf. Etymologicum Gudianum, s. o. ηκέστας).

). 12 BB 7. 328-9 (1883).

13 Kluge, in Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, 476, connects *i with *:, * 'there' (cf. Brugmann, Grundriss,“ 2. 2. 816-9, Strassburg, 1911), but Brugmann (837 f). associates it rather with Greek &vev 'without.'

Brugmann14 explains the type of ávnpeons as due to a 'secondary initial prolongation,' and the type of ynkepôńs “unprofitable,' as for *m-kepons, though he had previously held15 that inkepońs is formed by analogy with the type výveuos for *ve-avemos. As for the åva-type, Froehde16 derived ανάπνευστος from *άν-αναπνευστος: αναπνέω, and άνάεδνος from *άν-αεδνος, the other three instances being analogical with these. Schmidt, on the other hand, heldu? the second a of åva- to be a case of svarabhakti; while Burlingame18 has advanced the view that áva- is a double negative, *a-na, the starting point being such compounds as Sanskrit an-a-vrata ‘not without austerities. None of the words regarded by Baunack10 as showing a negative prefix *ne (aveuollos 'windy, empty,' veßpós 'fawn,' véktap 'nectar,' vétous, a Homeric epithet of seals) is really so to be explained.20

I myself interpret the Greek series νηκερδής, άμφασία, ανήγρετος, νήγρετος, ανέγερτος, ανάγνωστος as follows. The first five represent various grades of a base *ane- 'not.' The second prolonged grade (or possibly the second full grade of a secondary base *anē-) (*ne-) is found in mn-kepońs; the full grade I a (*an-) in åu-yaoin; the full grade II a (*ané-)21 in ανήγρετος for *άνε-εγρετος; the full grade II 6 (*ne-) in νήγρετος for *ve-eypetos; and the null-grade (*-n) in år-éyeptos; while the reduced grade b of a secondary base *anē- (*.na-) is represented by avá-Ywotos,22 and the second full grade (*nē-) (or possibly the second prolonged grade of *ane-) by vn-kepońs.

** Grammatik, 194.

15 Grundriss, 2. 1. 23, Strassburg, 1906; cf. Hirt, Akzent 312 f., Handbucha 458; Boisacq, 667 f.

16 BB 20. 213 (1894); cf. Solmsen, Untersuchungen zur griechischen Laut- und Verslehre 264-6, Strassburg, 1901, Brugmann, Grundriss," 2. 1. 22, Grammatik," 611.

17 KZ 23. 274 f. (1877).

18 AJP 39. 299-300, and similarly Andersen, Pāli Glossary 2, 8, 9, Copenhagen, 1904-05; cf. also, in general, Hamilton 11-15.

19 Studien auf dem Gebiete des Griechischen und der arischen Sprachen, 1. 271-6, Leipzig, 1888.

20 Cf. Boisacq. 61. 660f., 664f. (On véktap cf. H.Güntert, Kalypso. R. G. K.)

21 For the representation before n of *by a in Indian, Greek, and Latin, by u in Teutonic, and by i in Balto-Slavic, see Hirt, Der indogermanische Ablaut 18, Strassburg, 1900, Der indogermanische Vokalismus 86, Heidelberg, 1921.

22 For Indo-Greek accentuation of privative syllables see Wheeler, Der griechische Nominalaccent 45-9, Strassburg, 1885. The grade *ana- seems also to appear in Old High German una-holda and una-odhi (cf. infra, VI).

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