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The release of the syllabic y becomes the consonantal , that is articulated before the vowel e. The group ú+rr really becomes



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parasitic in the groups cl-, gl-,

<rr+í before

<útor in murre


Louis H. GRAY

The question of the mutual relation of the various privative nominal prefixes characterised by n in the Indo-European languages, as well as of these prefixes to the n-negative particles, has repeatedly been discussed from more than one point of view. Without recapitulating the theories already advanced, which may readily be ascertained from the appended bibliography, the problem may be examined anew in the light of all linguistic evidence now available. The fullest data are found in Greek, then in Italic, Indian, and Iranian; doublets of the type *n: *ne are rare in Celtic, Teutonic, and Balto-Slavic; they are not found in Armenian, which has only an=*ņ;' and their existence is questionable in Albanian.?


Here fve types are observed: ανάκεστος: ανήκεστος: νήκεστος;" ανάγνωστος : άγνωστος; and άμφασία. The material for the first three types, in the alphabetical order of the second component, is as follows: ανάκεστος 'incurable' ανήκεστος


(ακέομαι) dvnklowtos 'pointless'

(ακιδωτός) SVAKOVOTOS 'unheard' νήκουστος

(ακούω) αναλήγητοι duépluvou (Hesych.) ανηλεγής



νηλιτής guiltless” (άλτης) αναλειφία 'neglect of anointing' avhleloos ‘unanointed' νηλιφής

(αλείφω) *Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, 1. 419, Leipzig, 1895.

* Pedersen (1. 45) would cite here Albanian ésɛlɛ 'fasting': sil 'breakfast,' and égel 'fasting': gele 'food,' but this is doubted by Barić, Albanorumänische Studien, 1. 59-60, Sarajevo, 1919.

• For the distribution of the vn-compounds see Hamilton 61-62, and cf. ib. 11-13.

• For the type adávatos : &Oavatos, where the first of three short syllables is metrically lengthened in words of four or more syllables, see Hirt, Handbuch, 51, and for the Sanskrit ádeda ‘godless,' ásat ‘non-being (árūpita is too uncertain to admit of satisfactory discussion), see Wackernagel, 2. 131. The Modern Greek colloquial forms arhuropos 'powerless': éutopô 'to be able,' avnčevpos “ignorant': teuplokw 'to discover' are derived by Hatzidakis (Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik 431, Leipzig, 1892) from the colloquial forms ήμπορ(ε)ω, ήξεύρω. The colloquial ανηπρόκοπος “unprogressive' beside & pbxotos is apparently due to analogy with some compound where år is justified.

(αμαρτάνω) (αμέλγω) (άνεμος) (ανία) (ανύω) (ανήρ) (άποινος) (άρεστός) (άρω) (αριθμός) (αρόω) (εγείρω)

αναμάρτητος “unerring’

νημερτής ανάμελκτος unmilked’ ανήμελκτος

ανήνεμος 'windless' νηνεμος ανάνιος painless' ανήνιος

ανήνυστος impracticable άνανδρος “ 'unmanly' ανήνωρ ανάποινος ‘unpunished'

νήποινος ανήρεστος unpleasing

ανήρης 'unjoined' ανάριθμος numberless’ ανήριθμος

νηριθμος ανήρoτος 'unploughed' ανέγερτος 'not to be waked' ανήγρετος

νήγρετος ανέλατος not ductile' ανήλατος ανελεήμων 'merciless' ανηλεήμων ανελεής 'merciless' ανηλεής


νήπιος ανέρεικτος 'uncrushed' ανήρεικτος

ανηρεφής 'roofless' ανερίθευτος unbribed’ ανηρίθευτος (Ionic) ανέρικτος unpounded’ ανήρικτος (Ionic) ανέριστος ‘undisputed'

νηριστος άνηστις “ 'fasting' νηστις ανόδους 'toothless'

νωδός ανώδυνος “ painless' νώδυνος

ανώιστος unforeseen' ανόλεθρος 'unruined ' ανωλεθρος

ανώμαλος 'unlike'

ανώματος "unsworn' ανονόμαστος nameless' ανώνυμος

νώνυμος ανόροφος 'roofless' ανώροφος ανοχυρος 'infirm' ανώχυρος



The rather scanty material of the type ανάγνωστος : άγνωντος is, in Ancient Greek: ανάγνωστος absolutely secret’: άγνωστος ανάεδνος “without bridal gifts'6 ανάελπτος “unhoped for'7 ανάπνευστος “breathless’: άπνευστος ανάπταιστον το μή πταίον” (Suidas): άπταιστος

• Callimachus, frag. 422: μηδέν έθέλω καλόν έχεις ανάγνωστον; see Burlingame 301. This ανάγνωστος is, of course, quite other than the common ανάγνωστος “readable.'

6 έδνον <*chεδνον>"ρεδνον (Boisacq 215).

1 ελπος <*ρελπ-, ib. p. 246. For αάατος inviolable' see it. 1-2, and Ehrlich, Untersuchungen über die Natur der griechischen Betonung 227, Berlin, 1912, the latter deriving it from *α-σαρα-το-s disallowed'; αάσχετος irresistible' is derived by Schulze, Quaestiones Epicae 495. n. 1, Gütersloh, 1892, from *»-sn-sgh-eto-s 'quasi non continendus.'

In Modern Greek this use of åva- has received some extension, as is shown by the following examples, the colloquial forms being marked by C:8

Cavábados 'senza profunditd: &Babos
ανάβατος inaccessibile: άβατος
ανάβολος incomodo':C άβολος
αναβράκωτος sans-culotte':C αβράκωτος
C αναβρεξά, αναβροχή sicciid:C άβρεξία, αβροχία
C ανάγνωρα unknown':C αγνώριμος
C ανάκακος senza malicia: άκακος
ανάκαρδα timid’: άκαρδα
ανακέφαλος “headless”: ακέφαλος
C ανάμελος negligente: αμελής
C αναπάντεχος inatleso': C απάντεχος
αναπολιφτος not urbane, rustic': απολίτευτος
Cavaqayos 'senza appetito':C avapayavos 'insaziabile'

Of the fifth type the sole examples in Greek, apart from the Homeric åppaoin 'speechlessness' beside åpaola,' are, possibly, árvépalos 'cloudless' beside ανέφελος (the latter metrically lengthened to ανέφαλος, ζ 45) and allopos 'crestless' (only K 258, where the variant reading is & locos) beside άλοφος.10

(The etymology of MKEO TOS 'ungoaded' (?)!!_found thrice (Z 94, 275, 309) in the phrase βούς ήνις ηκέστας with the variant reading ακέστας -is quite uncertain. It is explained by Froehde as equivalent to a Sanskrit *āśasta 'hoped for, desired, praised.' One is half-tempted to associate the formation with that of Old High German awiggi 'wayless, astray' (cf. infra, VI); but the problem is yet too obscure to admit of satisfactory solution.13)

8 Brighenti, Dizionario greco-moderno-italiano, Milan, 1909; G. Meyer 11-12.

• Kretschmer, KZ 31. 407 (1902); Boisacq 57-58. Collitz, in Hamilton 11, suggests the division dug-aoin and connexion with the base *as(d)- 'to parch, wither'; Hatzidakis, 'Akaðnuelxd 'Avayvwowata, 2. 230, Athens, 1904, makes it a metrical formation on the analogy of άμβροτος immortal' :βροτός.

10 In the Epidaurian poem of Isyllus, line 66, au popos is to be read instead of duttopos (Baunack, Aus Epidauros 18, Leipzig, 1890).

(All examples of the type are probably metrical lengthenings, graphically designated in various ways. Cf. also Walde, Streitberg Festschrift 153 f. G.M.B.)

1 Cf. ηκέστης ο αδάμαστος (Suidas); ηκέστας δε αντί του αδαμάστoυς, ακεντήτους, ακενTplotous, &voxectoUs (Etymologicum Magnum, s. o. Hvis; cf. Etymologicum Gudianum, s. 0. ηκέστας).

). 12 BB 7. 328-9 (1883).

13 Kluge, in Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, 476, connects *i with •š, *ŏ 'there' (cf. Brugmann, Grundriss,* 2. 2. 816-9, Strassburg, 1911), but Brugmann (837 f). associates it rather with Greek åvev 'without.'

Brugmann” explains the type of evnpeçons as due to a 'secondary initial prolongation,' and the type of ynkepońs ‘unprofitable,' as for *n-kepons, though he had previously held15 that vnkepdýs is formed by analogy with the type νηνεμος for *ve-ανεμος. As for the ava-type, Froehde16 derived ανάπνευστος from *άν-αναπνευστος: αναπνέω, and άνάεδνος from *άν-αεδνος, the other three instances being analogical with these. Schmidt, on the other hand, held17 the second a of ava- to be a case of svarabhakti; while Burlingamelhas advanced the view that ava- is a double negative, *a-na, the starting point being such compounds as Sanskrit an-a-vrata 'not without austerities.' None of the words regarded by Baunack" as showing a negative prefix *ne (áveuálcos 'windy, empty,' veßpós 'fawn,' vextap 'nectar,' vétous, a Homeric epithet of seals) is really so to be explained.20

I myself interpret the Greek series νηκερδής, άμφασία, ανήγρετος, νήγρετος, ανέγερτος, ανάγνωστος as follows. The first five represent various grades of a base *ane- 'not.' The second prolonged grade (or possibly the second full grade of a secondary base *anē-) (*ne-) is found in un-kepońs; the full grade I a (*an-) in åu-yaoin; the full grade II a (*ané-) 21 in ανήγρετος for *άνε εγρετος; the full grade II και (*ne-) in νήγρετος for *ve-ey petos; and the null-grade (*-») in ár-éyeptos; while the reduced grade b of a secondary base *anē- (*.na-) is represented by åvá-ywotos,22 and the second full grade (*nē-) (or possibly the second prolonged grade of *ane-) by vn-kepońs.

1 Grammatik, 194.

15 Grundriss, 2. 1. 23, Strassburg, 1906; cf. Hirt, Akzent 312 f., Handbuch 458; Boisacq, 667 f.

16 BB 20. 213 (1894); cf. Solmsen, Untersuchungen zur griechischen Laut- und Verslehre 264-6, Strassburg, 1901, Brugmann, Grundriss,” 2. 1. 22, Grammatik, 611.

17 K2 23. 274 f. (1877).

18 AJP 39. 299-300, and similarly Andersen, Pāli Glossary 2, 8, 9, Copenhagen, 1904-05; cf. also, in general, Hamilton 11-15.

19 Studien auf dem Gebiete des Griechischen und der arischen Sprachen, 1. 271-6, Leipzig, 1888.

20 Cf. Boisacq. 61. 660f., 664f. (On vertap cf. H.Güntert, Kalypso. R. G. K.)

21 For the representation before n of *, by a in Indian, Greek, and Latin, by u in Teutonic, and by i in Balto-Slavic, see Hirt, Der indogermanische Ablaut 18, Strassburg, 1900, Der indogermanische Vokalismus 86, Heidelberg, 1921.

22 For Indo-Greek accentuation of privative syllables see Wheeler, Der griechische Nominalaccent 45-9, Strassburg, 1885. The grade *gna- seems also to appear in Old High German una-holda and una-odhi (cf. infra, VI).

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