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Selections from different Authors. 475 skill of the Creator, in disposing the same number of teeth in an order so convenient, so necessary even for our existence ?"
The Same. In the whole machinery of springs and rivers, and the apparatus that is kept in action for their duration, through the instrumentality of a system of curiously constructed hills and yalleys, receiving their supply occasionally from the rains of heaven, and treasuring it up in their everlasting storehouses, to be dispensed perpetually by thousands of never-failing fountains, we see a provision most striking and important. So also in the adjustment of the relative quantities of sea and land in such due proportions as to supply the earth by constant evaporation, without diminishing the waters of the ocean; and in the appointment of the atmosphere to be the vehicle of this wonderful and unceasing circulation; in thus separating these waters from their native salt, (which, though of the highest utility to preserve the purity of the sea, renders them unfit for the support of terrestrial animals or vegetables,) and transmitting them in genial showers to scatter fertility over the earth, and maintain the never-failing reservoirs of those springs and rivers, by which it is again returned to mix with its parent ocean: in all these we find such' undeniable proofs of a nicely balanced adaptation of means to ends, of wise foresight, and benevolent intention, and infinite power, that he must be blind indeed, who refuses to recognize in them proofs of the most exalted attributes of the Creator. Buckland's Vindicia Geologice.
T. August 25th, 1825.
EXTRACTS FROM THE PUBLIC NEWSPAPERS, &c.
Subsidence of the Baltic.- A singular and interesting fact has been ascertained respecting the level of the Baltic. It was suspected that the waters of this sea were gradually sinking; but a memoir in the Swedish Transactions for 1823 has put the change beyond doubt. From latitude 56 to 63 degrees, the observations show a mean fall of one foot and a half in 40 years, or about 4-10ths of an inch annually, or thrée feet four inches in a century. The Baltic is very shallow at present, and if the waters continue to sigk as they have done, Revel, Abo, and a hundred, other ports will, by and by, become inland towns; the Gulphs of Bothnia and Finland, and ultimately the Baltic itself, will be changed into dry land.-Glasgow Mechanics' Magazine.
Mr. T. H. Bell, of Alnwick, has invented what he calls a marine cravat, to prevent persons from drowning. It is a cylinder of leather, water-proof, three inches in diameter, sufficiently long to surround the neck, and fasten bebind with a buckle or clasp. It possesses a buoyancy sufficient to keep a person's bead above water, so that by its use any one, though unable to swim, might venture into the deepest water, and remain suspended in security.-Worcester Herald.
Mr. Martin, the Member for Galway, waited on the Magistrates at Queen-square Office on Thursday, and endea. voured to draw their attention to the scenes of cruelty, such as dog-fighting, bear and badger-baiting, &c. which are so repeatedly perpetrated at what is called “ The Westminster Pit," in Duck-lane. Their Worships observed, that the parties might be proceeded against at the Sessions.
Another fatal combat took place yesterday morning at daybreak, at Duckfield, near Bushey, between Davenport, a vender of earthenware, and M'Dermot, a labourer, in consequence of a public-house dispute on politics on Monday night. The combatants fought awkwardly more than two hours, and at length M‘Dermot received a chance righthanded blow upon the temple, and he died in the ring.
A fire, destructive in its consequences, broke out on Monday night, at the cotton mills of Fraser, Wigton and Co. at Mere, on the banks of the Paddington Canal, which destroyed every vestige of the machinery, but the dwelling-house contiguous was saved by a parting wall. It was occasioned by the carelessness of one of the trimmers setting fire to some yarn.
An elephant belonging to Mr. Hoddam, of the Bengal Civil Service, at Gyat, used every day to pass over a snall bridge leading from his master's house into the town of Gyat. Extracts from the Public Newspapers. 477 He one day refused to go over it, and it was with dificulty, and by goring him most cruelly, that the driver could gět bim to renture on the bridge, the strength of which he first tried with his trunk, showing clearly that he suspected it was not sufficiently strong. At last he went on; and, before he could get over, the bridge gåve way, and they were precipitated into the ditch, which killed the driver, and considerably injured the elephant. It is reasonable to suppose that the elephant must have perceived its feeble state when he last passed over it. It is a well-known fact, that elephants will seldom or ever go over strange bridges without first trying with their trunks if they be sufficiently strong to bear their weight, nor will they ever go into a boat without doing the same.
Effects of Temperance.-We find, from the registers of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, that, as a consequence of their temperance, one half of those that are born, live to the age of 47 years : whereas Dr. Price tells us, that of the general population of London, balf that are born live only 23 years ! - Among the Quakers, 1 in 10 arrives at 80 years of age; of the general population of London, only 1 in 40!-Boston Medical Intelligencer.
Origin of the term Sterling for Money.-- In the time of Richard the First, money coined in the east parts of Germany came in special request in England, on account of its purity, and was called easterling money, as all the inhabitants of those parts were called Easterlings ; and soon after some of these people, skilled in coining, were sent for to London, to bring the coin to perfection, which was soon called sterling from Easterling. Edward I. established a certain standard for the silver coin of England; but no gold was coined until the reign of Edward III., who caused several pieces to be coined called florences, because they were coined by Florentines.. Afterwards he coined' nobles, then rose nobles, current at 6s. 8d.g half noble at 3s. 4d., halfpennies of gold, and quarters at 20d., called farthings of gold. The succeeding kings coined rose nubles, and double rose nobles ; great sovereigns, and half Henry nobles, and shillings. James. I. coined unites, double crowns, and British crowns, shillings, sixpences, and interior pieces. Charles II. converted most of the ancient gold coins into guineas.
The spider of Brazil reaches an enormous size, with different habits from those of Europe. It stretches its web from tree to tree, and no longer appears a solitary insect; many hundreds live together, and form nets of such strength, that I have assisted in liberating a bird of the size of a swallow, quite exhausted with struggling, and ready to fall a prey to its enemy.--(Caldecleugh's Travels in South America.)
Mixing Salt with Hay.--Mr. Wm. Woods, of the Spread Eagle Inn, Ingatestone, has given the following interesting information in answer to enquiries made of bim by a Suffolk agriculturist, respecting his mixing salt with hay when getting into stack, and giving it to his post horses and stock:
L“ I have used salt to hay in unfavourable seasons upwards of thirty years, which hay has been regularly consumed by all my stage, post, and farm horses, and
kewise by my cows, bullocks, and sheep; and every description of stock has done well with it. I generally keep about 70 horses, 12 cows, 10 or 12 bullocks, and 100 sheep ; and from the beneficial effects experienced, I now do and shall continue using salt with my hay, whether the season prove foul or fair. My rule is to mix about a peck to a load, keeping a boy sprinkling whilst unloading." Mr. Woods adds, that last year he spread ten bushels of salt per acre on some land sown with barley, and that the part salted was two shades lighter colour than the unsalted, and produced an increase of four bushels per acre; and it should be remembered, that the beneficial effects from salt do not cease with the first crop.
Hop Intelligence.--Maidstone.-Monday we saw a branch of hops taken from a ground belonging to Mr. Browning, of West Malling. It had a most healthy appearance, and was perfectly free from insects of every description. It appears that Mr. B., amidst the general failure of his neighbours, has 15 acres, which will produce between two and three bags per acre. This singular and valuable exception arises from his having, some time ago, when the bine was loaded with insects, stripped off the whole of the leaves on the above 15 acres. The result has been as we have stated. The green and beautiful appearance of that piece forms a striking contrast to the black and ruined state of his neighbours' grounds, and indeed of some of his own, on which he did not try the experiment.-- London Paper.
Peckham and Camberwell Fairs.- The Chairman of the Quarter Sessions desired an officer to request the attendance of the Grand Jury, who shortly afterwards came into Court.
Chairman Gentlemen, it is the wish of the Bench that I should address you relative to the fairs held annually at Cam. berwell and Peckham, as representations have been made of disgraceful outrages having been committed without the probability of detecting the promoters of such ontrages. I should
advise you in your next presentation, to present these fairs as a nuisance to the proper authorities, who will then no doubt have recourse to the proper mode of putting them down. Fairs were originally permitted by the legislature for the enjoyment of proper and legitimate amusement, and also
Extracts from the Public Newspapers. 479 as a mart for the disposal of articles of labour, cattle, &c.; the fruit of industry thus supporting the proper and ancient character of fairs as originally intended." He concluded by saying, that he would not waste their time by further obser. vations on this subject.- London Paper.
The Mayor of York bas issued a notice against illegal gambling directing the Police-officers of the district to give a vigilant attention to this subject, and to take such active measures respecting it as the law has authorised them to · pursue.
To extract Grease-spots from Liren. The following method is not generally kuown, and is certainly the most simple, and the best we ever met with :-Take magnesia in the lumpwet it, and rub the grease-spots well with it; in a little time brush' it off, when no stain or appearance of grease will be left.-(London Paper.)
Letter from Brighton, May 23.--Hydrophobia.-Dangerous Experiment.-Two dogs, supposed to be mad, made their appearance among us to-day, and many curs were reported as having been bitten by them. One of the supposed rabid ani. mals was pursued and destroyed; but the other, in a dreadful state of irritation, is secured in the house of a surgeon, who does not believe in the acknowledged opinion, that hydrophobia can be imparted, as commonly supposed, by the bite of the dog. If he be right, he is in no danger; if otherwise, he may suffer severely for his rashness, as the diseased animal mentioned has wounded him in the arm, one of bis teeth having been passed through his coat and shirt-sleeve, and penctrated the flesh so as to divide the skin and draw blood. The surgeon, however, is so grounded iu his belief, that no injury, by possibility, can result from the hurt, that he declines even to apply the caustic, and smiles at the apprehensions that are manifested on his account. We sincerely hope that no disagreeable consequences may follow.
Another Letter.—A surgeon of Brighton, (Mr. Robert White,) received a wound from a dog, supposed to be mad. The said animal, in a secure state, was taken care of in the house of Mr. White, where, at intervals, be would take food, and, at other times, betray alarming symptoms of irritation, until yesterday, when he died. A dissection of the animal, in the presence of divers physicians and sargeons, followed yesterday in the afternoon, when, from the appearance of many parts of the body, brain, and intestines, coupled withi the symptoms which preceded death, the opinion was prevalent that the dog was mad. In this opinion Mr. White fully coincides; but he is under no alarm of ultimate consequences, as be considers the bite as of no more moment to be attended