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As the last image of that troubled heap, 45
When Sense subsides, and Fancy fports in sleep,
(Tho' past the recollection of the thought)
Becomes the stuff of which our dream is wrought:
Something as dim to our internal view,
Is thus, perhaps, the cause of most we do. 50

True, some are open, and to all men known;
Others so very close, they're hid from none;
(So Darkness strikes the sense no less than Light)
Thus gracious Chandos is belov’d at sight;
And ev'ry child hates Shylock, tho' his soul 55
Still sits at squat, and peeps not from its hole.

COMMENTARY. VER. 51. True, some are open, &c.] But now in answer to all this, an objec7or, as the author fhews (from y 50 to 61) may fay, " That these difficulties seem to be aggravated : For many " Characters are so plainly marked, that no man can mistake " them : And not so only in the more open and frank, but in © the very closest and most recluse likewise.” Of each of which the objector gives an instance, whereby it appears, that the forbidding closeness and concealed hypocrily in the one, are as con{picuous to all mankind, as the gracious openness and frank

NOTES. VER. 56. - peeps not from, finding but small satisfaction in its hole.] Which shews that what a famous poet reckons this grave person was content one of the great advantages of with his present situation ; as

The foul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd,
Lets in new light from chinks that time has made. SCRIBL.

old age,

At half mankind when gen'rous Manly raves,
All know 'tis Virtue, for he thinks them knaves :
When universal homage Umbra pays,
All see 'tis Vice, and itch of vulgar praise. 60
When Flatt’ry glares, all hate it in a Queen,
While one there is who charms us with his Spleen.

But these plain Characters we rarely find;
Tho' strong the bent, yet quick the turns of mind ::
Or puzzling Contraries confound the whole; 65
Or Affectations quite reverse the soul.

COMMENTARY. plain-dealing of the other.--The Reader fees this objection is more particularly leveld at the doctrine of x 23.

Our depths who fathoms, and our shallows finds ? for it here endeavours to prove, that both are equally explorable.

VER. 63. But these plain Characters &c.] To this objection, therefore, our author replies (from X 60 to 67) that indeed the fact may be true in the instances given, but that such plain characters are extremely rare: And for the truth of this, he not only appeals to experience, but explains the causes of it: 1. The First of which is, the vivacity of the Imagination; for that when the bias of the Passions is enough determined to mark out the Character, yet then, as the vigour of the Fancy generally rises in proportion to the strength of the Appetites, the one no sooner directs the bias, than the other reverses

Tho' strong the bent, yet quick the turns of mind. 2. A Second caufe is the contrariety of Appetites, which drawing several ways, as Avarice and Luxury, Ambition and Indolence, &c. they must needs make the same Character inconsistent to itself, and consequently inexplicable to the observer,

Or puzzling Contraries confound the whole. VER. 66. Or Affectations &c.] 3. A Third cause is Affectation,

it;

2

The Dull, flat Fallhood serves, for policy;
And in the Cunning, Truth itself's a lye:
Unthought-of Frailties cheat us in the Wise;
The Fool lies hid in inconsistencies.

70 See the same man, in vigour, in the gout; Alone, in company;

in place, or out; Early at Bus’ness, and at Hazard late; Mad at a Fox-chace, wise at a Debate; Drunk at a Borough, civil at a Ball;

75 Friendly at Hackney, faithless at Whitehall.

Catius is ever moral, ever grave,
Thinks who endures a knave, is next a knave,
Save just at dinner-then prefers, no doubt,
A Rogue with Ven'son to a Saint without.

COMMENTARY. that aspires to qualities, which neither nature nor education has given us, and which, consequently, neither art nor use will ever render graceful or becoming. On this account it is, he well observes, that Affectation reverses the soul; other natural pasions may indeed turn it from that bias which the ruling one has given it; but the affected paffions distort all its faculties, and cramp all its operations; so that it acts with the same constraint that a tumbler walks upon his hands.

Ver. 69. Unthought-of frailties &c.] 4. A Fourth cause lies in the Inequalities in the human mind, which expose the wise to unexpected frailties, and conduct the weak to as unlooked for wisdom.

VER. 71. See the same man, &c.] Of all these Four causes he here gives examples: 1. Of the vivacity of the Imagination (from Ý 71 to 77) - 2. Of the contrariety of Appetites (from * 76 to 81) — 3. Of Affe 7ation (from *80 to 87) – and 4. of the Inequalities of the human mind (from * 36 to 95.)

80

Who would not praise Patritio's high desert, His hand unstain'd, his uncorrupted heart, His comprehensive head! all Int’rests weigh’d, All Europe fav’d, yet Britain not betray'd. He thanks you not, his pride is in Picquette, 85 New-market-fame, and judgment at a Bett.

What made (sayMontagne, or more fage Charron!) Otho a warrior, Cromwell a buffoon? A perjur’d Prince a leaden Saint revere, A godless Regent tremble at a Star ?

90

VARIATIONS.
After ý 86. in the former Editions,

Triumphant leaders, at an army's head,
Hemm’d round with glories, pilfer cloth or bread;
As meanly plunder as they bravely fought,
Now fave a People, and now fave a groat.

NOTES. Ver. 81. Patritio] Lord VER. 89. A perjur'd-Prince] G-n.

Louis XI. of France, wore in VER. 87. -- Say Montagne, his Hat a leaden image of the or more sage Charron ! ] Charron Virgin Mary, which when he was an admirer of Montagne ; swore by, he feared to break had contracted a strict friend his oath. P. fhip with him; and has tranf

VER. 90. A godless Regent ferred an infinite number of tremble at a Star ?) Philip his thoughts into his famous Duke of Orleans, Regent of book De la Sagelse; but his France in the minority of moderating every-where the Louis XV. superstitious in juextravagant Pyrrhonism of his dicial astrology, tho' an unbefriend, is the reason why the liever in all religion. The poet calls him more sage Char fame has been observed of

many other Politicians. The

ron.

The throne a Bigot keep, a Genius quit,
Faithless thro' Piety, and dup'd thro' Wit?
Europe a Woman, Child, or Dotard rule,
And just her wisest monarch made a fool?

men ob

NOTES. Italians, in general, are not Providence would be next to more noted for their refined introducing a morality deftrucPolitics than for their attach tive of that public fystem ment to the dotages of Astro- which they think necessary logy. It may be worth while for the government of the to enquire into the cause of so world. They have recourse fingular a phenomenon, as it therefore to that absurd scheme may probably do honour to

of Power which rules by no Religion. These

other law than Fate or Dejtiny. ferving (and none have equal The confideration of this peropportunities of fo dojng) how haps was the reason that the perpetually public events fall poet, to keep up decorum, and out besides their expectation, to preserve the distinction beand contrary to the best-laid tween a Patriot and a Polischemes of worldly policy, tician, makes the former rely cannot but confess that hu on Providence for the public man affairs are ordered by safety, in the concluding words some power extrinfical. To

of the Epistle, acknowledge a God and his

Such in those moments as in all the past,

O save my Country, Heav'n! shall be your last. VER.91. The throne a Bi- | prisoned till his death. P. got keep, a Genius quit,] Philip Ver. 93. Europe a Woman, V. of Spain, who, after re Child, and Dotard rule, - And nouncing the throne for Reli- just her ablest monarch made a gion, resumed it to gratify his fool?] The Czarina, the King Queen ; and Victor Ama- of France, the Pope, and the deus II. King of Sardinia, who abovementioned King of Sarresigned the crown, and try- dinia. ing to reassume it, was im

I

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