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Is this too little for the boundless heart?
Extend it, let thy enemies have part:

355

COMMENTARY. volence throughout that Whole, acts in conformity to the will of his Creator ; and therefore this Enlargement of his affection becomes a duty. But the poet hath not only thewn his piety in this observation, but the utmost art and address likewife in the disposition of it. The Esay on Man opens with exposing the murmurings and impious conclusions of foolith men againk the present constitution of things: As it proceeds, it occasionally detects all those false principles and opinions that led them to conclude thus perversely. Having now done all that was neceflary in Speculation, the author turns to Practice; and ends his Essay with the recommendation of an acknowledged virtue, Charity', which, if exercised in the Extent that conformity to the will of God requireth, would effectually prevent all complaints against the present order of things: such complaints being made with a total disregard to every thing but their own private system, and seeking remedy in the disorder, and at the expence, of all the rest. This obfervation,

Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake, is important: Rochefoucault, Esprit, and their wordy difciple Mandeville, had observed that Self-love was the Origin of all those virtues Mankind most admire; and therefore foolishly supposed it was the End likewise : And so taught that the highest pretences to disinterestedness were only the more artful disguises of Self-love. But our author, who says somewhere or other,

Of human Nature, Wit its worst may write,
We all revere it in our own despite,

MS. faw, as well as they and every body elfe, that the Passions began in Self-love; yet he understood human Nature better than to imagine they terminated there. He knew that Reafon and Religion could convert Selfishness into its very oppofite; and therefore teacheth that

Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake : And thus hath vindicated the dignity of human Nature, and the philosophis truth of the Christian doctrine.

360

Grasp the whole worlds of Reason, Life, and Sense,
In one close fyftem of Benevolence:
Happier as kinder, in whate'er degree,
And height of Bliss but height of Charity.

God loves from Whole to Parts: But human soul
Must rise from Individual to the Whole.
Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake,
As the fmall pebble stirs the peaceful lake ;
The centre mov’d, a circle strait succeeds, 365
Another still, and still another spreads ;
Friend, parent, neighbour, first it will embrace;
His country next; and next all human race;
Wide and more wide, th'o'erflowings of the mind
Take ev'ry creature in, of ev'ry kind; 370
Earth smiles around, with boundless bounty blest,
And Heav'n beholds its image in his breast.

Come then, my Friend! my Genius! come along; Oh master of the poet, and the song! 374

VARIATIONS.
VER. 373. Come then, my friend ! &c.] in the MS. thus,

And now transported o'er so vast a Plain,
While the wing'd courser flies with all her rein,

NOTE s. VER. 373. Come then, my strophe, by which the Poet conFriend ! &c.] This noble Apo- cludes the Effay in an address

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And while the Muse now stoops, or now ascends, ,
To Man's low passions, or their glorious ends,

VARIATIONS.
While heav'n-ward now her mounting wing she feels,
Now scatter'd fools fly trembling from her heels,
Wilt thou, my St. John ! keep her course in fight,
Confine her fury and affist her flight?

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NOTES. to his friend, will furnith a deduceth the SUBLIME , Critic with Examples of eve

1. The first and chief is a ry one of those five Species

Grandeur and Sublimity of Conof Elocution, from which,

ception : as from it Sources, Longinus

Come then, my Friend! my Genius! come along,
O Master of the Poet, and the Song !
And while the Muse now floops, and now ascends,

To Man's low passions, or their glorious ends,
2. The Second, that Pathe- fame Time, melts and in-
tic Enthusiasm, which, at the

Alames :
Teach me, like ibee, in various nature wife,
To fall with dignity, with temper rise,
Form’d by thy converse, happily to jteer
From grave to gay, from lively to severe;
Correct with spirit, eloquent with Ease,

Intent to reason, or polite to please.
3: A certain elegant Formation and Ordonance of Figures:

0! while along the stream of Time thy name
Expanded flies, and gathers all its fame,
Say, frall my little bark attendant sail,
Pursue the triumph, and partake the gale!

1 - σέντε πηγαί τινές εισιν τ' υψηγορίας. 1. Πρώτον μεν και κράτισον το τσερί τας νοήσεις αδρεπήβολον. 2. Δεύτερον δε το ύφοδρών και ενθασιατικών πάθο. 3. Ποια των σχημάτων σλάσις. 4. Η γενναία φράσις. 5. Πέμπη δε μεγέθες αιτία, και συγκλέβεσα τα προ εαυτης άπανία, η εν αξιώματο mj diagoti curdicisi

380

Teach me, like thee, in various nature wise,
To fall with dignity, with temper rise;
Form’d by thy converse, happily to steer
From grave to gay, from lively to severe;
Correct with spirit, eloquent with ease,
Intent to reason, or polite to please.
Oh! while along the stream of Time thy name
Expanded flies, and gathers all its fame,

my little bark attendant sail, 385
Pursue the triumph, and partake the gale?
When statesmen, heroes, kings, in duft repofe,
Whose fons shall blush their fathers were thy foes,
Shall then this verse to future age pretend
Thou wert my guide, philosopher, and friend?

390

Say, shall

NOTES. 4. A splendid Diction :

When statesemen, heroes, kings, in dust repose,
Whose Sons fall blush their fathers were thy foes,
Shall then this verse to future age pretend
Thou Wert my guide, philosopher, and friend ?
That, urg'd by thee, I turn'd the tunefulart,
From sounds to things, from fancy to the heart ;

For Wit's falfe mirror held up Nature's light; 5. And fifthly, which in Weight and Dignity in the cludes in itself all the rest, a

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Composition:
Shew'd erring Pride whatever is, is RIGHT;
That REASON, Passion, answer one great AIM;
That true SELF-Love and SOCIAL are the SAME;
That Virtue only makes our Bliss below;
And all our Knowledge is OURSELVES TO KNOW?

That urg'd by thee, I turn’d the tuneful art From sounds to things, from fancy to the heart; For Wit's falfe mirror held

up

Nature's light; Shew'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; 395 That true SELF-LOVE and SOCIAL are the same;

COMMENTARY. Ver. 394. Shew'd erring Pride, Whatever Is, is Right ;] The poet's address to his friend, which concludeth this epistle so nobly, and endeth with a recapitulation of the general argument, affords me the following observation, with which I fall conclude these remarks. There is one great beauty that shines through the whole Essay: The Poet, whether he speaks of Man as an Individual, a Member of Society, or the Subject of Happiness, never misseth an opportunity, while he is explaining his itate under any of these capacities, to illuftrate it in the most artful manner by the inforcement of his grand Principle, That every thing tendeth to the good of the IV hole, from whence his fyftem receives the reciprocal advantage of having that grand Theorem realized by facts, and his facts justified on a principle of Right or Naturc.

Thus I have endeavoured to analyse, and explain the exact reasoning of these four epistles. Enough I presume to convince every one, that it hath a precision, force, and closeness of connection, rarely to be met with, even in the most formal treatises of Philofophy. Yet in doing this, it is but too evident I have destroyed that grace and energy which animates the original. And now let the reader believe, if he be fo disposed, what a certain Critic upon this work insinuates to be his own opinion, as well as that of his friends: “ Some persons, says he, have

conjectured that Mr. Pope did not compose this Essay at once, " and in a regular order ; but that after he had wrote several « fragments of poetry, all finished in their kind, (one, for « example, on the parallel between Reason and Instinct, an“ other upon Man's groundless Pride, another on the Preroga“ tives of human Nature, another on Religion and Superstition, “ another on the Original of Society, and several fragments

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