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particular features that have not flora contains the temperate plants been already described. The house usually found at similar elevais on a plateau, close under the tions, with some additions not Ardjoeno peak, and was built observed before, among which was about ten years ago by a Scotch a small geranium (G. ardjoense), sugar-planter who has since left closely related to an Australian Java. A small charge is made for species, and remarkable as the its occupation, and there is suf- only geranium found in the Malay ficient furniture in it, but the archipelago. visitor has to bring food and bed- The visit to Prigen brought our ding. The ascent to the crater of Javan tour to an end, and we left Ardjoeno is a three hours' rough the hotel at 5 A.M. in sados, arrived scramble through forest and over at the Porong railway station at blocks of lava, and presents no half-past six, and reached Soeradifficulties for a good walker. The baja at nine o'clock. The same descent takes two hours. The evening we sailed in a Dutch Welirang crater requires four steamer for Batavia, calling en hours there and back. Both these route at the small island of Bawevolcanoes are now extinct, but jan, where we stayed a few hours. in the latter sulphur fumes still This is of volcanic origin, and its rise and deposit crystals on planks hills are covered with dense forest, which are placed for the purpose giving place on the lower slopes to over the crevices. The masses of sugar-cane and other cultivated crystals thus obtained sometimes crops. On the third day we landed attain a length of nearly two feet; at Batavia, whence we sailed in and we met several natives carry- the weekly steamer to Singapore, ing baskets of them down to the arriving there on 12th June. plains for sale. The Ardjoeno




CHARLES EDWARD had landed on Edinburgh. In the capital inat Borrodale in Arisaig in the ternal dissensions prevailed. There last week of July 1745. His was a struggle for municipal office. hopes of support from the French The tradesmen of the guilds were Government had been greatly dis- much more interested in the quesappointed, but the enthusiasm and tion as to who should be Deacon, persistent purpose of the man had than in that of who should be led to this bold-apparently most King: No proper precautions had hazardous-initial step. The same

been taken to meet the emergency, qualities, joined to considerable and Provost Stuart and Captain sagacity and insight, and great Drummond, of opposite political physical endurance, sustained him leanings, did not work in harmony. to the last through many dis- The result was that no competent couragements, led him

even to force was sent out from the capimore than one victory, and after tal to stay the march of the Prethe final disaster of Culloden, tender; and in the end, Lochiel stood him in good stead in his and other chiefs with 900 Highwanderings and terrible hardships. landers contrived to enter by the His standard had been unfurled Nether Bow Port at five in the in the vale of Glenfinnan, at the morning. The citizens were asleep, head of Loch Shiel-a banner of and the city was now at their red silk with a white space in the mercy. The valiant Scottish officentre — destined to draw many cials of Bench and Bar, to say hearts to it, to evoke much chiv- nothing of municipal and ecclesialrous devotion, to be identified astical dignitaries, had almost unifor a time with heroism and vic- versally fled. The Highlanders tory, but the precursory symbol might do as they chose, but here of the wreck of many a noble at least they behaved well. The life and the ruin of many an Prince entered Holyrood in the ancient home. Highland clan course of the day amid great enafter clan furnished contingents thusiasm. He and his army refor the enterprise. At length he mained in the capital until Cope found himself strong enough to had returned from Inverness, and set out on the march southwards. was threatening them from Dunbar Sir John Cope was sent with per- on the east. On Friday the 20th emptory orders to intercept him. September the Prince, at the head Cope got as far as Dalwhinnie, of his army, set out from Duddingwithin sight of Corriearrick, whose ston, where they had bivouacked summit the Highlanders had al- during the night. Cope was adready occupied from the other vancing from Dunbar. The Royalside. Instead, however, of facing ist army reached Preston a little the foe, Cope thought it prudent after noon. At first Cope drew up to turn to the right and march on his line fronting the west. Findto Inverness, thus leaving the ing the Highlanders passing him to Prince free to continue his march the south, he changed his position

1 Chambers, Rebellion, 1745, vol. i. p. 95.


so as to front southwards. In the sleep. The sun had now risen, and morning of the battle he returned was breaking the mist into cloudy to his first position, with his line, masses that rolled from the Firth however, facing the east. He had on their right to the fields on their Cockenzie and the sea on his flank left. But neither army could be to the north. On the south of his seen by the other. The line of line was a boggy morass traversed the Highlanders hastily formed was by a deep ditch or drain, that made somewhat irregular, but advance for the sea by the east of Seton to the attack was at once made. Castle. The Highlanders lay down Before they got half - way, the for the night in an open stubble- sun had partly dispelled the mist, field to the west and south of and displayed the glittering array Cope's position. Towards even- of the bayonets of the Royalist ing a thick mist or easterly haar line. Lochiel and the Camerons led, settled down on land and sea. and pierced impetuously through a The Prince, along with his offi- fire of cannon and musketry. Nocers and soldiers, slept under the thing could withstand their onset. open heaven in this field of cut They met a squadron of dragoons pease a sheaf of pease - straw under Colonel Whitney, who panicserving each

for pillow. struck merely fired a few shots and The attack was to be made in the fled. The famous Colonel Gardiner morning, but the difficulty for the then advanced to fill the place of forces of the Prince was how to get the vanished squadron, but his cavacross the morass and ditch with alry too fled in panic and precipisafety and without exposure to un- tation, much to their leader's grief. returned fire. A scheme for doing In a similar manner Hamilton's so was brought to Lord George dragoons on the left flank turned Murray and the Prince, in the from the field in terror before early hours of the night, by a son the MacDonalds, without, it is of Anderson of Whitborough, a said, even firing a shot. The deproprietor in Lothian. It was at fenceless infantry was thus left to once adopted, and it was resolved the sweep of the Highland broadto follow his guidance through the sword and the thrust of the dagger. bog, and attack the Royalists in As was their custom, the Highthe early morning. The force landers when within range fired began to move about three o'clock, one volley of musketry, then threw some three hours before sunrise. away their pieces, and, having the Following Anderson in dead broadsword in the right hand and silence, they stole down the valley target and dirk in the left, made a that runs through the farm of torrent-like rush on the opposing Ringan Head, -concealed by the line. The gleam of the terrible darkness of the night, and, as day steel burst through the smoke of broke, by the mist.

When near

the fire. Receiving the thrust of ing the morass, they were dis- the enemy's bayonet in the target, covered by an advance - guard of where it stuck, each man cut down dragoons; but they were able to his fronting foe. The assailants cross and form on the firm ground were speedily within the opposing on the other side without molesta- line, pushing right and left with tion. Cope was meanwhile riding sword and dagger. The battle was in hot haste from Cockenzie, where decided in a few minutes. What he had been wakened from his followed was mere but terrible car





nage, 1—made by broadsword and afterwards Duke of Queensberry, the scythe-headed pole. Though succeeded. This personage, known

, the number of combatants

“old Q," preferred the joys either side was not great, yet of London to the simple pleathe sun has rarely shone on any of the scenery of the battle-field that presented a more

Tweed. But the castle itself had gory or ghastly spectacle than that not as yet been denuded of its of Preston on that September furnishing and ancient tapestry, Saturday.

and the old trees of many generSir John Cope, after in vain ations stood round it untouched. trying to rally the dragoons, who It was still a suitable residence had behaved so shamefully, and for

for a country gentleman. Mr boggling on horseback amid the Christie's neighbour and friend, lanes of Preston, rode from the to whom the letters are addressed, field with 400 cavalry. The panic was James Burnett of Barns, an of the day had evidently permeated adjoining property, the represenhim, for he never halted until he tative of a very old family which had put more than twenty miles was still in the full enjoyment of behind him, and got to Lauder, its ancestral lands. His descenwhere he halted for refreshment.2 dant had not yet begun to “imThence he rode to Coldstream, and prove” the estate and the family next day reached Berwick, carry- off the roll of landed gentry. Mr ing through the Lowlands like a Burnett was, I rather suspect, like flying courier the first news of his a good many others of the Lowown defeat.

land lairds, a Jacobite at heart, The following letters were though he took no outward part written after the battle, and they in the rising. His close correcontain reports of eye-witnesses. spondent was Mr David Beatt, a They do not add materially to our teacher of writing in Edinburgh, information, but they confirm and and an ardent Jacobite, who officiillustrate points in the ordinary ally proclaimed King James the narrative. They are of interest as VIII., and read the commission the resuscitation of the feelings and of regency in favour of his son mood of mind of people who were Charles, before the palace of Holyliving at the time, and as citizens rood after the Prince's entrance. eager, even personally anxious, for The Barns family were evidently news of the fight. There are, fur- in cordial sympathy with Mr Beatt ther, picturesque touches in them and his views. He continued to of real human interest. The writer correspond with them for several of most of them was a Mr James years after Culloden. From one Christie, indicated in one of the of his letters we learn that he had . letters as of Durie, in Fife. But he one interesting pupil in 1747. The was now living at Neidpath Castle, heroine, Flora Macdonald, freed by the Tweed, about a mile from from her restraint in London, came Peebles. The ancient castle had to Edinburgh for instruction in penbeen let to strangers after the manship, a part of her education sudden death of the second Earl which had apparently been neglectof March in 1731, when his son, ed. Mr Beatt excuses himself for

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Compare the accounts of John Home and R. Chambers in their respective Histories of the Rebellion in 1745.

Report of Cope's Trial, p. 43.



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not visiting Barns in these words Preston to inform the father of the (September 25, 1747) :

disappearance of his son, and of the

fruitless search he had made for “As I have enter'd with Miss Flory him on the field (Sept. 23).

WalM'Donald, who waited five weeks for my return to Town, and who needs ker said that he did not hear that very much to be advanced in her the Dragoons got any orders to writing, confines me to daily attend- fire, but that they did so of their ance, and must do so till she is brought own accord,

-some of them five, some length in it, which obliges me three, and four times, others only to keep the Town close."

There is no account, he Mr Christie had a son a lieu- says, of Cope. tenant in Colonel Murray's Regi

The following is written Sepment, which took part in the battle tember 23—the Monday after the of Preston. He writes to Mr

battle. The servant sent out for Burnett the day after the battle,

news about the son has not yet under date "Sunday morning returned, and the father and (22d September), and says :

family are "still in great pain for

Johnie.” Some soldiers had come “A sentinel of Colonel Murray's from the battle-field on Saturday to Regiment, in which my son is lieu- Etlstoun (Eddleston), and on to tenant, is just come to our house Peebles on Sunday. "One of them, [Neidpath], and is a little wounded in the leg. He says that Colonel Gaird

who was in the same regiment and ner and Captain Leslie in Murray's company with young Christie, came Regiment are killed, and 'tis said that up from Peebles to Neidpath Cope is killed. Many of the dragoons Castle on the same day. He are killed. Gairdner's Dragoons and reported to the anxious father the men were not to blame. Their

that the Lieutenant had gone horses being young, and the High; off with the Dragoons, believed landers throwing up their plaids, and

to be for Berwick :the sight of their broadswords so frightened them that they threw

“But we are still at an uncertainty many of the riders, and killed many about Johnie till John Ker comes of their own foot. Many of the dra back. The young man said that goons were also shot. Hamilton's several Highlanders were killed by Horse behaved better. My son John, their comrades, and that the Highhe says, commanded one of the pla- landers still fired, and charged for toons of his own regiment in the rear about two hundred yards, as they (the of his own regiment, and his captain Highlanders) were approaching them; commanded another on the rights that he saw Colonel Gairdner fall, and My son went off with the remaining that Lieutenant-Colonel Clayton, their part of the dragoons towards Ber- Lieutenant-Colonel, was also killed, wick, where it is now said there are and that he saw Captain Leslie fall six thousand Dutch landed. This

upon his knee, and there is no cerman says that they were but three tainty about Cope. He seemed to be thousand five hundred, and the High- much surprised when he saw the numlanders nine or ten thousand. He ber of Highlandmen, for he was made says they stood within pistol-shot of believe that they were not above three one another some time, and neither thousand. The young man said that horse nor foot of them had orders to after their first fire the Highlanders fire one shot, but did it of their own surrounded them, being triple their accord, and fired but one. They have number, and that the Dragoons fought thirteen hundred prisoners, eight as well as possibly they could, for cannon, and all the baggage.their horses threw many of them, and

killed them and several of their foot ; John Walker, Lieut. Christie's and after the Dragoons had gone a servant, rode to Neidpath from

little off, three or four troops of them

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