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history of architecture in India. their waving plumes of silveryNo one can doubt as to the purity grey inflorescence, form a charmof the Buddhism in the temple of ing addition to the landscape. In Boroboedar; but at Mendoet two India the cultivated sugar-cane of the colossal figures are distinct- bears no flowers, and the plants ly Hindu, and it might be fairly are propagated by cuttings, and argued that the temple belongs to even in Java the seeds do not either religion. The temple is mature. Manihot (M. utilitissima) forty-five feet square, and stands on is grown on dry elevated land not a basement raised about ten feet. suited for rice, and its queerIt has been much injured by earth- shaped tuberous roots are quakes, and appears likely to fall in every bazaar. From these the soon into a heap of ruins. Inside meal known as cassava is prepared is a cell with a roof of very curious in tropical America, and tapioca

a design, described by Fergusson as for the European market. The

an inverted pyramid of steps,” un- manihot is a handsome plant, with der which are seated three colossal large deeply-lobed leaves; but the images, each about eleven feet high. raw root is bitter, and more or less The centre one is Buddha, curly poisonous until the juices have headed, and clad in a diaphanous been expelled by pressure.

, robe; and the two other colossi The temples at Brambanan are are almost certainly intended for quite as interesting as those at the Hindu deities Vishnu and Boroboedar, and are

most conSiva. Outside the entrance is a veniently visited by an excursion bas relief of Lakhshmi, eight- of half-an-hour by rail from Djokarmed, and seated on a lotus; and jokarta. There is no hotel at on another face is a four-armed Brambanan, and no refreshment figure, also seated on a lotus, the of any kind can be obtained there; stem of which is supported by so the best plan is to bring a two figures, each with its head luncheon-basket and spend a happy composed of seven hooded snakes. day among the temples, returning Fergusson compares these bas- to Djokjokarta in the evening. reliefs with those at Karli in Brambanan has two distinct groups India, and considers them to be of temples, known respectively as

as refined and elegant as any. Loro Jongram, and Chandi Siwa thing in the best days of Indian or the thousand temples. Both sculpture.” It is a pleasant shady groups are of Hindu character. walk to Mendoet, and a small The former is considered by Ferbridge near the temple commands gusson to be the older, about the a very

beautiful view of the Soem- ninth century, and consists of six bing cone.

large temples surrounded by fourWe left Boroboedar at 7 A.M. teen smaller cells, now completely on 25th May, and arrived in three in ruins. The buildings and their hours at Djokjokarta, a large town enclosure walls are crowded with on the line of railway to Soera- sculptures, including some grobaja. Every yard of the country tesque figures of animals. The through which we passed was cul- other group, known as Chandi tivated, the principal crops being Siwa, is of later date, but is the sugar-cane and manihot. Sugar is more interesting. It consists of a the staple export from eastern great central temple raised on a Java ; and the cane - fields, with richly ornamented square base, and

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is surrounded by a multitude of and shady, but the place contains smaller temples 238 in number. no object of special interest.

We Fergusson writes :

left it the day after arrival, going by

rail (three hours) to Passoeroewan, “The central building is richly and elaborately ornamented with carvings, climate, on the coast opposite the

a pretty town with a much cooler figure sculpture, which renders its island of Madura. An excursion dedication not easy to make out.

can be made from here to a waterWhen looked at closely, it is evident fall known as Blancoe water, with that Chandi Siwa is neither more nor a Hindu temple near it.

Miss less than Boroboedar taken to pieces North describes the place as pretty and spread out, with such modifica- and worth seeing, but we were untions as were necessary to adapt it to that compromise between Buddhism able to visit it. and Brahmanism that we call Jaina.”

The next morning at 7 A.M. we

started for Tosari and the Bromo Both the groups of temples are volcano. A drive of two hours within a walk of the Brambanan through the low country, presentrailway station, but it is advisable ing the scenery characteristic of the to take a guide, as it is quite pos- ever-fertile Javan plains, brought sible to miss the ruins in the us to the village of Paserpan at jungle that has grown up about the foot of the hills, where we exthem.

changed our carriage for a sadoh.1 From Djokjokarta we went by After another hour's drive uphill railway to Soerakarta (called Solo we arrived at Poespo, the present

, in the time-tables), a large town end of the road, where we prowith a fort and military garrison. cured riding and baggage ponies A native prince resides here, who for the remainder of the journey. still maintains some semblance of During the ascent frequent views royalty, and possesses a palace are obtained of the straits of which is shown to visitors. Beau- Madura and of the island. The tiful specimens of the national deep blue of the sea, the vivid sarong, the large cloth worn as a green of the rice-fields, the foliage petticoat by the Malays, and by of the trees and palms, and the Dutch ladies, can be obtained here grey clouds that hung in long bars at from twenty to fifty guilders across the sky, combined to form each. From Soerakarta we travel- pictures of tropical beauty such as led straight through to Soerabaja, we had seldom seen even in Java. a twelve hours' railway journey, Immediately after leaving Poespo and a weary time we found it the forest is entered, and the in spite of the beautiful scenery. rough pathway ascends through Soerabaja was extremely hot, quite it by steep zigzags. Coffee-bushes, as bad if not worse than Batavia, covered with their pretty red berand without the advantage of ries and white flowers, commenced having an airy and well-arranged at about 4000 feet elevation, and hotel. The city is the Liverpool continued, mixed with occasional of Java, and during July and forest - trees, until reached August, the season of sugar ex- nearly the level of Tosari. The port, the small harbour is full of forest was extremely picturesque, shipping. The streets are broad and contained the usual temperate


1 The cab of Java, seen every where; drawn by one or two ponies.

forms of vegetation, but with fewer degree than ourselves, as, like and smaller tree-ferns than in their countrymen throughout Java, western Java. Among the trees every one disappeared soon after was a Casuarina with fine dark the mid-day “rice-table,” and went foliage, the beef-wood of Austral- to bed till they woke about four ian colonists, crowning the hill. o'clock for the afternoon tea. The tops like pine - woods in temper- view from the hotel garden over ate latitudes. An Engelhardtia, the forest - clad spurs running a tree allied to our walnut, was steeply down to the plains, with also common, and remarkable for the blue sea and its islands, was its pendent spikes of fruit, some- superb, but could only be entimes more than a foot long, with joyed by the early riser. We pretty pink-coloured bracts. The made several delightful rambles trunks and branches of these over the hills, and met among the trees were often completely covered flowers many old friends of the with a thick growth of orchids, Himalaya, and even of distant ferns, and a lichen (Usnea) that England. The temperate charformed long grey streamers. Occa- acter of the mountain flora in the sional teak - trees were scattered tropics suggests questions regardabout the forest, of insignificant ing the geographical range of plants size as compared with those in that do not concern us here; but Burmah, but bearing beautiful it was pleasant to see wild strawpanicles of flowers. After riding berries, St John's worts, stitchabout three hours, we came out on worts, and many other familiar open hills where the forest had plants, growing by the wayside in been cleared to make way for eight degrees south of the equator. fields of potatoes, cabbages, and During our few days' stay here I Indian corn, and in half-an-hour amused myself by making a list

we arrived at the Tosari of the Himalayan flowers which I Hotel. This place is 6000 feet recognised, and it amounted to above the sea, and is much re- over sixty species. sorted to during the dry season One fine morning, on climbing by the families of the Dutch mer- to the top of a ridge, we caught chants and officials at Soerabaja. sight for the first time of the In this respect it answers to our truncated cone of a huge volcano, hill-stations in the Himalaya; but towering above the sea of clouds the visitors all live at the hotel, that shrouded its flanks. This was and one misses the well-kept roads the famous Smeroë, 12,000 feet and trim cottages of Mussoorie or high, and only about fifteen miles Darjeeling.

distant from us in a direct line. Tosari certainly possesses the The air was so clear that it seemed advantage of being cool, but other- as if we could see every stone wise the climate is disagreeable. on the crater's edge. We were The mornings, and occasionally the watching this scene, and speculatevenings, were fine; but about ing how long it would be before noon dense clouds of cold wet mist, the summit became hidden by the usually accompanied by storms of clouds, when suddenly an immense driving rain, swept up the valleys, column of steam and black ashes and rendered life somewhat of a was shot up into the blue sky, and, burden. These conditions, how- spreading out like a flat cloud, ever, affected the Dutch to a less drifted away to leeward. We


afterwards discovered that these the present system of craters was sudden eruptions occurred periodi- formed. From the bottom of the cally at irregular intervals, vary- descent the route crosses the sandy ing from ten to forty-five minutes, plain, which resembles the bed of and were visible from a distance of a dried-up lake, and passes close over fifty miles. The explosions under Batuk, whose steep sides resemble those of a geyser, and, have been cut by the rain into like them, are probably due to deep vertical furrows, and are now subterranean accumulations of covered with bushes. The summit steam. The ascent of Smeroë is must originally have been much quite practicable; but as the ex- higher than at present, and the pedition required five days from denudation it has suffered is shown Tosari there and back, and in- by the irregular talus formed round volved a good deal of rough climb- the base of the cone.

We left our ing, we did not attempt it, but ponies at a shed to the east of contented ourselves with a visit Batuk, and after half-an-hour's to Bromo. The crater of this climb arrived at a flight of steps volcano, like that of Kilauea in leading up the steep sandy side of Hawaii

, consists of an irregularly- the Bromo crater. This is an shaped outer crater, in this in- example of the inverted-cone type, stance about twenty miles round, and is about 600 yards diameter with smaller and more

recent at the rim, and 300 or 400 feet craters situated at one end. It is deep.

At the bottom are some probable that the outer crater may small fumaroles and cracks giving be due to subsidence rather than vent to steam, and the sides are to explosion, but either theory streaked with bands of yellow seems to fit the facts. The floor sulphur. Over the lower slopes of that at Bromo is covered with of Bromo large amorphous lumps ash in the form of coarse sand, in- of vesiculated scoriæ are scattered stead of with lava as in Hawaii. that appear to have exuded from

We started for Bromo at half- cracks, and masses of similar matepast five in the morning, and two rial, of a roughly spherical shape,

, hours' ride over

a good track occur on the surface of the “ Sea brought us to the edge (7320 feet) of Sand.”

. The sandy plain is of the outer crater, where a won- almost devoid of vegetation, except derful view is obtained of the so- a polygonum and some grasses and called “Sea of Sand” (Dasa), with sedges; but the cracks and furrows the singular extinct cone of Batok on Bromo are already tenanted by rising from its midst. The crater, ferns, a vine, a bramble, vaccinium which is now active, is distin- bushes, and other stragglers from guished as Bromo (7080 feet), but the surrounding forest. it is hidden from view at this The scene from the top of Bromo point by the slopes of Batuk, is grandly weird, and not even the The descent to the sandy floor lake of surging lava at Kilauea is about 500 feet, and is very impressed me with an equal sense of steep It affords some interest- the forces pent up

within the apparing sections of the crater-wall, ently solid globe on which we live. composed of nearly vertical sheets I know of no scientific description of lava and scoriæ, that must have in the English language of the been ejected from volcanic vents wonderful system of craters, overexisting in this vicinity ages before lapping each other like those in

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the moon, to be seen at this spot; Dutch residents is prepared as an but a Dutch friend was kind extract with cold water, which is enough to translate for me por- run off into small decanters and tions of a work 1 on the plants served with sugar and hot milk. and volcanoes of this district, A very little of the extract goes which appeared to be very well a long way; but the beverage thus done. From the hotel to the prepared possesses an aroma and Bromo crater is a walk of about freshness of flavour that is superior four hours, and the whole excur- to the coffee one gets even

in sion is of the greatest interest.

France or Egypt. We left Tosari at seven o'clock Malang is a large town with a the next morning and rode to military garrison, and is the terDjaboeng, a village at the foot of minus of the railway running the hills, where we arrived at south from Soerabaja. It is situ2 P.M., and got sados for the drive ated in the fertile valley of the to Malang. The path, except for Brantas river, and commands fine a few rough places, is good. It views of the volcanic ranges enpasses at first through the lower closing the valley on the east and hills, then traverses a characteristic west. An excursion should be Javan forest with tree-ferns and made from Malang to Singosari waterfalls, and for the last few (half-an-hour by rail) to see a miles lies through coffee planta- Hindu temple and some curious tions. Here we saw the berries statues, assigned by Fergusson to being picked; the girls and boys the tenth century. climbing into the bushes, and the From Malang we went by rail old women gathering berries on (one and a half hour) to Soekarthe ground. It was a very busy edjo, a roadside station, whence and pretty scene. At Djaboeng we drove (in two hours) to Prigen, we took shelter in the verandah of a small sanitarium possessing a a Government coffee storehouse, delightful climate, and beautifully thronged with natives bringing placed on the elevated plateau their quotas of berries, which the which gives rise to the volcanic officials weighed and paid for. The peaks of Ardjoeno and Penangcultivation of coffee in Java is a goengan. Government monopoly, and like Many pleasant walks and rides certain other valuable products, may be taken in this neighboursuch as tea, cinnamon, pepper, hood, but the principal attraction &c., the cultivators are obliged to is the excursion to Lalidjiwa, a sow at least one-fifth of their hold- small house 8000 feet above the ings with the prescribed crop, the sea, from whence the ascent of product being paid for at fixed Ardjoeno, and of its sister crater, rates. The advantages of this Welirang, may be accomplished. system appear questionable; but We left Prigen on ponies at 7 Mr Boys, an experienced ob. A.M., and arrived at Lalidjiwa at server, who paid particular atten- half past ten. The path is very

tion to the subject, considers that, steep, but ponies can be ridden on the whole, the results are bene- nearly the whole way.


scenery ficial. The coffee used by the is most beautiful, but presents no

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Zune gedante, zun plantentooi, en inwendige bonw-cloor. Junghunh. 2 Deel.


1 Java.

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