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1. From the hotel to the small twenty Dutch young ladies, on

plateau above the Tji Byr- the way to their homes for the ram waterfall, two hours. holidays. The girls were in high Ponies can be ridden up to spirits, and kept us amused with this point.

playing games and singing chorus 2. To Lebaksaät, hour. songs until the ship became a

There are the remains of a little lively, when they disappeared hut here.

below. The Anglo-Indian in Java 3. To Kandung Badak (Rhino- is much struck by the manner in

ceros field), one hour. A which the Dutch make themselves habitable hut, but in bad at home in their Eastern possesrepair, here.

sions, as contrasted with our habits 4. To the crater, two hours. in India. Few fathers of families The best plan would be to sleep in Java think it necessary to send at the Kandung Badak hut (bed- their boys and girls to Holland ding and food being taken), and for education; and it is common, to start early for the summit, even in Batavia, to see troops of whence the return to Sindanglaja little pale-faced children creeping can be made the same day. A unwillingly to school. The Dutch good chance would thus be secured ladies also seem to resign themof obtaining the view from the selves quite willingly to perpetual crater (9924 feet), which is almost exile. The difference is no doubt always enveloped in clouds soon partly due to the superior climate after sunrise. If an ascent of which the interior of Java posPanggerango (8670 feet) is also sesses, as compared with the burnmade, a second night must be ing plains of India; but it is also spent at the hut. This volcano in some degree attributable to is now extinct, but Wallace con- the sensible manner in which the siders it more interesting than Dutch adapt their dress and daily Gede, though he does not add for habits to the conditions of life in what reason.

The ascent of either the tropics. In Java the Euroof these mountains is seldom under- peans seem to make up their taken, and as no attention is paid minds to live their lives there, to keeping the paths open, they while in India we are all birds of soon get blocked with jungle and passage. fallen trees. But the trip presents Early the next morning the no difficulties to a good walker, steamer anchored off the port of and from Wallace's account these Tjeribon, and we enjoyed a view volcano summits must be among of the fine cone of the Tjeribon the most interesting in the island. volcano, sweeping up in grand

From Sindanglaja to Buitenzorg curves behind the low hills, and is a drive of twenty-four miles barred with masses of grey clouds. through charming scenery and over Later in the day we called at the an excellent road. It takes about ports of Tegal and Pekalongan, four hours. We returned from and during the night anchored Buitenzorg to Batavia, and sailed off Samarang. Unfortunately the at 9 A.M. on the 17th May in a morning broke thick and cloudy, Dutch coasting steamer for Sema- and we thus missed seeing the rang

in Central Java. The steamer “glorious view of the five volwas comfortable, but was rather canoes ” described by Miss North. crowded, as in addition to the Semarang is the centre of much ordinary passengers we carried commercial activity, but was chiefly important in our eyes as afford- buying the small packets of curry ing access to the temple of Boro- and rice wrapped in fresh plantain boedar and the many other curious leaves, and pinned with bamboo Hindu and Buddhist ruins in the splinters, which are intended for central provinces. The town was home consumption. To stroll down hot, and we left it by the 2 P.M. a village street and watch the train for Amberawa, where we culinary operations in progress at arrived the same evening. The wayside eating shops, was an unascent into the hilly country com- failing source of amusement; and mences almost immediately after very clean and appetising they leaving the coast; but the journey looked, though the smell was occaoffered no novelties except a few sionally somewhat trying to the pepper plantations and some native European nose. The Javans, like burial-grounds, which contained all rice-eating people, are fond of the largest and oldest Plumiera pungent and evil-smelling sauces; trees we had seen. This tree and equivalents of the Burman (P. acutifolia) bears white sweet- gnapee and Japanese bean soy scented flowers, and is often seen are in constant requisition.

The in India and Burmah planted near natives, and especially the chiltemples. In Java it appears to dren, look fat and healthy, and be appropriated for cemeteries ; appear to enjoy life under easy and in this instance, to judge from conditions ; though they are, genertheir massive trunks and thick ally speaking, of grave demeanour, gnarled boughs, the trees must be and are not endowed with the unof great age.

At Amberawa, the failing vivacity which distinguishes terminus of the railway branch, the Burmans and Japanese. Durthere is a small fort occupied by ing the six weeks that we spent in a military garrison. It is a pretty the island we did not see half-alittle place, provided with the well- dozen beggars, and except in cities, kept and shady roads always to be certainly not that number of policefound in Dutch settlements in the

The conditions of life for the East.

poor who dwell within the tropics I cannot pretend to express an

are easy as compared with those of opinion on the general merits of northern climates. A poor man the Dutch system of government in Java requires but little in the in Java, but the results are cer- way of clothing, and no fuel to tainly apparently satisfactory, for keep himself warm, while a benethe vast native population seem ficent nature supplies him throughcontented and happy. From early out the year with an abundance of dawn until late in the evening, the cheap food.

These circumstances numerous villages, and the roads may fail in developing the highest connecting them, are thronged with forms of human energy, but on the natives coming and going, and other hand, for the persons conbuying and selling. The people cerned, they are more tolerable live much in public; and the poorer than cold and hunger. classes, instead of eating their While at Amberawa we called meals at home as is the manner on the Dutch Resident to obtain of the unsociable Hindoo, seem the necessary authority for a visit usually to breakfast and dine at to the Dieng plateau, which we one of the itinerant cook-shops to had proposed to ourselves, but be found at every street corner. did not succeed in carrying out. More exclusive people may be seen

We found that the Resident was


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absent in the district, but on hear- gave us excellent accommodation. ing of our wish he did all that Javan hotels are always good, and was possible to aid us, and had it they are often kept by the class not been for bad weather we should known in India as half-caste or doubtless have accomplished the Eurasian, a somewhat unjustly conexpedition.

temned race in British possessions, The Dieng is an extensive plateau but who appear in Java to be at an elevation of about 6000 feet treated with as much respect as on the flanks of Mount Prahoo. It the whites. At two o'clock our is the site of some ruined temples carriage, drawn this time by six of great interest and antiquity, ponies, drove up to the hotel with which Mr Fergusson says form much cracking of whips, and we a good introduction to the more started for Ngadiredjo, a village elaborate structures at Boroboedar. at the foot of the hills, and the end We did not succeed in getting of carriage roads in this direction. there, but an account of our at- Though it was against the collar tempt, so far as it went, may be of the whole way, the ponies mainuse to more fortunate travellers. tained a good pace, being urged

We left Amberawa in a carriage thereto by the wild shouts and at 8 A.M., and after a pretty drive incessant cracking of whips mainarrived at Temanogoeng at noon. tained by our coachman and the The road was hilly, and for the two ragged boys who acted steep ascents the ponies were re- grooms,

and who, in the intervals placed by bullocks. It was on the of running alongside the ponies, trees that border this road that clung breathless to the back of the •We saw for the first and only time carriage. The drive was quite the curious little animals known exciting, and after two hours we as flying lizards (Draco volans), pulled up at the house of the which

are only found in these native official on whose hospitality regions, and whose strange appear- we depended for food and shelter. ance is supposed to have been the Unfortunately we found that he origin of the dragon of the medi- also was absent in the district, and eval Eastern imagination. The no one seemed to know where he reptile is like an ordinary lizard, was or when he might be expected but is provided with folds of ex- to return. His servants, however, tensible skin, which are spread out after some palaver, arrived at the by the long ribs, and enable the conclusion that we were people of animal to glide through the air respectability, and made us fairly from tree to tree in pursuit of the comfortable for the night in the insects on which it preys. When verandah of the official residence. lying prone on the mottled sur- The next morning we succeeded face of a bough it is an excellent in procuring four rather weedyexample of “protective resem- looking ponies, and started for the blance,” as it is most difficult to “ Dieng plateau," but without be seen unless it moves.

having any clear idea where we Temanogoeng is a small village were to spend the night. The under the shadow of the Sindoro road climbed for several miles over and Soembing volcanoes. It seems bare hills; and as the country was quite out of the world, and we particularly uninteresting, and the were surprised to find here a good weather became threatening, we hotel kept by a nice old woman finally abandoned the expedition of Dutch - Javan extraction, who and returned to Temanogoeng. It


was lucky that we did so, for three days; and for the artist or pouring rain came on which would the archæologist, or, indeed, for have quite prevented our reaching any intelligent being, it is difficult Dieng

to imagine a more delightfully The next morning was brilliantly retired spot in which to rest from fine, and at seven o'clock we started the fatigues of travel. The wonin a carriage and four for Mage- derful temple of Boroboedar is lang, the Dutch military head- conjectured by Fergusson 1 to have quarters in central Java, where been erected in the seventh cenwe arrived at 10 A.M. The road tury of the Christian


the lay due south, down the valley of golden age of Buddhism in Java, the Kali Progo, through green "just when the Buddhist system rice-fields, with magnificent ranges had attained its greatest developof rugged mountains on either ment, and just before its fall. hand. The principal peaks were This temple thus contains within Sundoo and Soembing on the west, itself a complete epitome of all we and Merbaboe and the active learn from other sources, and is a cone of Merapi, crowned with perfect illustration of all we know white clouds, on the east. There of Buddhist art and its revival.” is a marked difference in the aspect The temple is built on the sumof the higher mountains in central mit of a commanding hill, and has and in western Java, the former the form of a pyramid with its being bare of vegetation, while the apex removed. Each side of the latter are clothed with forest to base measures 370 feet, and on their summits. The difference is the upper platform are placed the no doubt due to a diminished rain- seventy-two small shrines (or fall, which has been attributed dagobas), each with seated to the proximity of Australia to statue of Buddha in it, which the eastern end of the island. formed the temple proper.

In Magelang is a pretty little town, the centre of these rises a larger possessing a fine climate, and is a shrine, now empty, but which no favourite quarter with the Dutch doubt once contained relics or a officers; but there is nothing to statue. Four galleries, or prodetain one there, and we left cession paths, encircle the strucin the afternoon for Boroboedar, ture, and lead to the upper platwhere we arrived after a three form, where a grand view of the hours' drive. Here we found a fertile plain enclosed by rugged small hotel, kept by an old Ger- mountains is obtained. man who had formerly served in the Dutch army.

The house is “It is not, however," Fergusson within a hundred yards of the writes, “either from its dimensions central entrance to the great

or the beauty of its architectural de

sign that Boroboedar is so remarktemple, and commands fine views able, as for the sculptures that line of the romantic



its galleries. These extend to nearly surrounds it. We stayed here 5000 feet, almost an English mile,


1 See Fergusson’s ‘History of Indian and Eastern Architecture' (London, 1876), pp. 637 to 662, for an account of the Javan buildings, and for an interesting summary of Javan history. Another, and in some respects fuller, account of the Boroboedar temple may be found in his ‘Handbook of Architecture.' I have borrowed freely from both.


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and as there are sculptures on both this respect of the ruined temples faces of the galleries, we have nearly on the hill at Takht-i-Bahi over10,000 feet of bas-reliefs ; or, if we looking the Eusofzai plain on the like to add those which are in two storeys, we have a series of sculptures builders of which were probably

North-West frontier of India, the which, if arranged consecutively in a row, would extend over nearly three contemporaries of the workmen miles of ground. Most of them are who carved the bas-reliefs in Java. singularly well preserved ; for when we are accustomed to regard the Javans were converted to Mu- Buddhism as a widely-spread rehamadanism it was not in anger, and ligion even in these days; but the they were not urged to destroy what faith is now in its decadence as they had before reverenced : they merely neglected them, and, except compared with the golden age for earthquakes, these monuments which witnessed the nearly conwould now be nearly as perfect as temporaneous erection of temples when they were first erected.” in. Afghanistan, in India, and in

Java-countries where the tenets The outer face of the basement of Sakya Muni have long ceased is extremely rich in architectural to hold sway. It is interesting, ornaments and figure sculptures, while sitting on one of the ruined but is not historically important. dagobas, with the fertile plain The first enclosed gallery is the spread out below and the clouds most interesting, and contains on of steam curling up from Merapi, its inner wall 120 elaborate bas- to try and realise the scene that reliefs portraying scenes in the Boroboedar must have presented, life of Buddha, among which may say, a thousand years ago. The be recognised his marriage, his clamour of populous towns then domestic happiness, his departure rose from the plain, and the slopes from home and assumption of the of the eminence on which the ascetic garb, his life in the forest, temple stands were thronged with and his preaching in the deer-forest crowds of worshippers. The sculpat Benares, scenes which have tured galleries, now black with been rendered familiar to the age, then shone white in the sun, English reader by the brilliant decked with banners, and gay with pages of Sir Edwin Arnold's processions of richly robed monks 'Light of Asia.'

In the three engaged in the stately ritual of upper galleries Buddhism is rep- Buddha. But the scene, faintly resented as a religion. Groups evoked, soon fades into realities, of Buddhas, three, five, or nine, and it seems impossible to realise are repeated over and over again, that the grey pile before us, shatmixed with representations of tered by earthquake and silent in saints and sages. The carvings its desolation, has once been the have been executed in a hard centre of busy religious life. trachytic rock, and if the cover- Two and a half miles from ing of moss and lichens is scraped Boroboedar is the temple of Menoff, the finest tracings of the doet, conjectured to be of about artist's chisel are still to be dis- one hundred years later date, and cerned.

of extreme interest as illustrating The custom of placing their the compromise between Hindutemples on commanding sites is ism and Buddhism, which has characteristic of the Buddhists, many examples in Java, but the and Boroboedar reminded us in want of which leaves a gap in the

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