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field at Lexington or at Bunker Hill, opposed to it the whole Republican from some ground of personal or local party : the manufacturers as dissatisfaction, had thrown away their class; the labour organisations as weapons, what think you would have

a class; the anti-European element been their feelings in all the remaining years of their lives when the as a class; the silver States and Liberty Bell rang out on every re

the men who control them; the curring anniversary of American in- corporations that will have to pay dependence? This is a roll of honour. income-tax; and the unclassified This is a roll of freedom ; and in the series of interests and industries name of honour and in the name of which, as even the Democratic refreedom I summion every

Democratic member of this House to inscribe his port on the bill confesses, have name upon it.”

grown up under the influences

of the Protectionist system. Mr The next Presidential election Cleveland, to whose personal popuwill have to settle between these larity much of the enthusiasm that two gentlemen and the great par- brought about the American victies they represent. A reference tory was due, having filled the to the history of American tariffs office for two terms, will be unable, will show how long each has lasted. unless the political history record Thus:

of the country is broken, to accept The tariff of 1812, Protectionist, a nomination for a third term in lasted four years.

1896. Mr Wilson, whose name is The tariff of 1816, Democratic now so prominent as the responsiand less protective, but still main- ble author of the new tariff, seems taining high duties, lasted till to be a man of precarious health. 1857, or eleven years.

And all the signs seem to point to The tariff of 1857, still more a reaction towards Protection in Democratic and less Protectionist 1896. It must be remembered by 25 per cent, lasted four years. that the reaction will not need to

The tariff of 1861, Republican be great in the case of a country and Protectionist, was made more having still a protective duty of Protectionist in 1862 and 1864, more than 30 per cent on the and lasted in its protective form average. But even the Protectiontill 1870, or nearly ten years in all. ists in the United States may be

The tariff of 1870 and 1872, re- expected not to ignore the sharp duced and Democratic, lasted till lessons of experience; and we may 1875, in all five years.

assume that no further attempts The Protectionist tariff of 1875 will be made to ruin the trade of lasted till 1883, or eight years. other countries, to dissever the

The tariff of 1883, moderately American colonies of European Protectionist, lasted till 1890, or nations from the parent States, to seven years.

force a silver-based currency upon The tariff of 1890, extremely the reluctant countries of Europe, Protectionist, anti-European, and and to insolently parade a policy Republican, lasted till 1894, or of enmity and of defiance of not

merely the power and the riches of It will thus be observed that the great commercial nations of the history affords no promise of per- world, but of the indignation which manence in the matter of Ameri- an offended civilisation can feel, can tariffs. The present tariff has and the punishment it can inflict.

four years.

Printed by William Blackwood and Sons.

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It is surely high time that an unimpaired digestion, and with healthily constituted mortals, of nothing more constitutionally morwhom, despite the demonstrations bid about her inclinations than a of a Tolstoi, Zola, Bourget, and comprehensible desire to make her Ibsen, some isolated specimens lover as wretched as possible bemay yet be supposed to exist, fore she accepts the inevitable foreshould rise in arms against the gone conclusion of being happy growing encroachments of disease, with him. Why should disease mental and physical, upon the necessarily be more interesting subjects of fiction. We are tired than health, and deformity more of the uninterrupted society of fascinating than well-grown limbs dipsomaniacs, morphinists, and and a straight backbone? We are epileptics; weary of the neures- not all born physicians, whose misthenic heroes and their scrofulous sion it is to gauge the depth of lady - loves who have so often every wound, and lay bare the been forced down our throats of infirmities of each running sore; late years; and dead sick of those although of late the demarcation mysterious hereditary blood-curses line which used to divide doctors without which, as some of these from novelists seems to have got learned gentlemen would have us somewhat vague, and it has bebelieve, no self-respecting family come the fashion nowadays to put can possibly exist in these fin scientific labels on many things de siècle days. With a yearn- which, in the happy days of our ing that is almost pain we have ignorant youth, used to be excome to long for the sight of a plained in less complex fashion. hale, hearty young woman, devoid Thus in a recent lecture which it of manias or nerves, gifted with was our good fortune to attend, it VOL. CLVI.—NO. DCCCCXLIX.

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was decidedly startling to be in- those who might not inaptly be formed by a learned German pro- described as pathological or nosofessor that Hamlet was now known logical bards stands, of course, to have been a confirmed neures- the prolific Monsieur Zola, who, thenic, and Ophelia a striking having scarcely completed the long example of that form of mental dreary series of the Rougondisease known to science as nym- Macquart novels, has just launched phomania (N.B.—It would be in- upon the world a fresh cargo of teresting to know whether Shake- disease, under the ensign of speare himself was aware of these 'Lourdes,'1. a remarkable work facts: or is it possible that our which, scarcely issued from the greatest poet was in the same pre- printer's press, has achieved the dicament as Monsieur Jourdain, melancholy distinction of being put who talked prose without know- on the Index. ing it?); while the learned Italian It had been with a sigh of dismaster Lombroso has lately been tinct relief that, at the conclusion at great pains to demonstrate that of the work entitled Dr Pascal,' from certain evidence contained in we had mentally assisted at the desome passages of the “Inferno," struction of the Rougon-Macquart Dante was undoubtedly addicted annals; and as we beheld Madame to epileptic fits, although it can- Felicité Rougon (to our mind the not as yet be conclusively decided one sensible and sympathetic perwhether the particular form of son in the whole book), with her the disease from which he suffered own frail fingers, withered and is to be designated as hystero- bloodless with extreme old age, epilepsia or genuine epilepsy. yet strong with the power of a

What indeed is to become of tenacious resolve, crush down into poetry and art, if our favourite the roaring flames the papers that heroes and heroines of romance are represented her erudite son's lifethus ruthlessly to be subjected to work, we could not forego a pathological analysis, and their feeling of sneaking admiration most delicate feelings and passions for the spirited old matron, and brutally laid bare by the dissecting would even have been delighted, knife? We live in daily terror of had circumstances permitted, to being told that all the tears weakly lend her a helping hand in the shed over the woes of Romeo and work of wholesale destruction. It Juliet were but wasted sympathy, was an unspeakable comfort to imsince these misguided young people agine that these odious Rougonwere really suffering from a rather Macquart annals, which had taken acute attack of some repulsive their author no less than the disease with a long Latin name; or quarter of a century to compile, of learning that Katherine the existed no more, and that on his Shrew's bad temper was solely own solemn assurance we should due to a touch of liver complaint, never

more be called

upon

to which might have been far more renew acquaintance with any one easily and pleasantly cured by a of the

unsavoury members of dose of Carlsbad salts than by the this ill-starred family.

But our brutal treatment of a conjugal hopes of a fresh departure, which bully.

might possibly indicate the return

to more natural and wholesome First and foremost amongst lives, were rudely dispelled by

1

Lourdes, par Emile Zola. Paris : Charpentier, 1894.

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the perusal of the first half-dozen cant and commonplace; but show pages of Lourdes,' bearing in him the carcass of a dead dog, deupon us the melancholy convic- voured by maggots and in the last tion that we had here but ex- stage of putrefaction, and straightchanged the frying - pan for the way his inspiration will take fire, fire — since for a dozen invalids and for the glorification of this served up to us in previous vol- rotten hound he will discover such umes, we find them here bristling brilliant metaphors, such surprisby scores. And, verily, what more ing and novel depths of hue and fortunate opportunity for gratify- shade, as effectually to dazzle ing his pet propensities could and delight the ignorant, and even Monsieur Zola have found than to bewilder momentarily the critthe famous express - train from ic's equanimity. Paris to Lourdes, the so-called So likewise in 'Lourdes' it is, train-blanc, which yearly in the of course, with the most repulsive month of August conveys to the forms and branches of disease that miraculous grotto a wholesale and we are chiefly called upon to deal ; miscellaneous assortment of human and in the long weary journey, misery in quest of relief? Blind occupying upon paper alone 126 people and dumb, paralytics from pages of small - printed type, we birth or from accident, victims of are spared none of the loathsome dissipation or of hereditary dis- details which must necessarily acease, sybarites whose sad afflic- company the transport of three tions have been chiefly brought hundred more less afflicted about by a mistaken desire to persons, when forcibly compressed make one stomach do the work of in midsummer into the narrow two, and others who have never limits of a train. Our eyes are yet known what it is to feel forced to probe their most hidden otherwise than weary or famished, and repulsive sores, our ears are

-are here all swept along by the lacerated with their shrieks and same current, all actuated by one groans, and our olfactory organs are identical impulse, the hope of dis- repeatedly offended by the suggescovering in the obscure Pyrenean tion of perfumes more potent than village the answer to those riddles sweet. Having once landed the which have hitherto baffled sci- weary and disgusted reader at the

What a glorious field for terminus station, Monsieur Zola research ! what a rich harvest here resumes his well-known documento be gleaned of mouldering and tary style, and gives us in full putrefied fruits! and needless to not only the entire history of the say

that Monsieur Zola seizes so-called miraculous springs of upon the occasions thus presented Lourdes, and of the subsequent with all his customary energy net of intrigue, deception, mystery, and relish for the repulsive,—for and speculation woven around the it is melancholy to have to recog- little mountain village; but he nise with a kind of shuddering likewise forces down our throat admiration that this gifted artist's all the official, sanitary, and greatest and highest flights of domiciliary arrangements introgenius are ever inspired by the duced of late years for the recepdunghill or the charnel - house. tion of the pilgrims forming part The sight of a twelve-antler stag, of this gigantic picnicing party,

in the full pride of its virile and Crushed down and overshadowed vigorous beauty, will leave him beneath this overwhelming mass unmoved, as something insignifi- of historical, statistical, scientific,

,

ence.

and theological information, there and compassion for his fellowis, it is true, a thin vein of ro- creatures prevent him from openly mance, which, like a feeble thread disowning :of water meandering aimlessly through the vast rocky bed in

“Of his whole journey there re

mained to Pierre but a mighty comtended for a giant cascade, asserts

passion overflowing from his heart, its thin puny voice from time to

and leaving it wounded and bruised. time, without, however, succeeding He had seen thousands of those in arousing any serious interest. poor creatures praying, sobbing, imThis is the tale of the loves of ploring the Almighty to have comPierre and Marie, an ethereal,

passion on their sufferings ; and he

had wept and sobbed along with vapoury young couple, who seem

them, keeping within him, like a raw to have nothing stronger than rose

flesh - wound, the lamentable fraterwater in their veins, and to be nity of all their woes. Nor could he considerably less encumbered by think of these poor creatures without their mortal coils than a pair of burning with the desire to relieve transparent-winged butterflies who them. What indeed if the old simple live upon sunshine and dew.

faith no longer sufliced, if in retracMarie has been afflicted since

ing our footsteps backwards there childhood by an inexplicable para

was danger of going astray, would it

then be necessary to close the grotto, lytic complaint, and Pierre, de- to preach other objects of effort, spairing of ever being able to wed another sort of patience? But his the only woman he can love, has compassion rebelled at the suggesmeanwhile become a priest. They

tion. No, no! It were a crime to

close the dream of their heaven to meet again at Lourdes, where

those sufferers of soul and body, Marie has come with a last de

whose sole alleviation it was to kneel spairing hope of there recovering down midst the splendour of waxthe use of her limbs through the lights, rocked by the dreamy lullaby Virgin's intercession; and Pierre, of the chanted hymns. He himself who has lost his faith as a Catholic

had not committed the crime of unpriest, makes his own spiritual deceiving Marie. IIe had sacrificed ,

He

himself in order to leave to her the conversion dependent upon

Marie's

joy of her delusion, the divine conShe regains her health in

solation of having been cured by the consequence of one of those strong

Virgin. Where, then, could be the revulsions for which

so cruel as

to prevent the science has as yet no precise label; humble from believing,' to destroy but the corresponding miracle in in them the consolation of the superPierre's spiritual state does not

natural ? . No, no! We have not take place, for he has been con

the right to discourage any one.

Lourdes must be tolerated, as vinced by a medical friend that tolerate a fiction which is necessary Marie's cure

was solely due to to life.” natural causes. Pierre has, however, the courage and self-denial

In these and similar passages to conceal his convictions from the author sums up his impresMarie, and suffers her to go on sions of Lourdes and its pilgrimbelieving that a miracle alone has age; for who can doubt that the restored her lost health. At the writer has more or less identified conclusion of the book we himself with his hero Pierre ? Pierre's return to Paris after a five But if, as he tells us, the whole days' absence, bereft of his last il significance of the wonder - place lusion, yet with no other choice but rests but upon a flimsy illusion in to go on preaching a creed he has the mind of the ignorant, which ceased believing in, but which pity it were mere wanton cruelty to

cure.

nervous

man

we

see

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