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smile at the abolition of his direct

Eeports to United States. bounty if he gets an indirect one.

1889

£43,878,934 This sugar question has of course

1890 been one of the burning questions 1991

46,340,012

41,066,147 of United States politics for many 1892

41,412,006 years; and the charge that the 1893

35,715,274 Sugar Trust has actually purchased the votes of Senators in

The aggregate trade thus shows a order to maintain the higher rates

noticeable falling off; the most of duty, is the one that renders remarkable decrease in our exports the bill as passed so very objec- having taken place in wool and tionable alike to Democrats who woollen goods, yarns, silk manufacare free-traders and to Democrats tures (a decrease from £1,155,417 who are not.

in 1889 to £301,107 in 1893), There was of course a struggle metals, glass manufactures, clothover the cotton duties. These ing, hardware, and like articles of duties were under the original bill purely domestic produce. But the greatly reduced; whereupon the trade is still so very large that the Advocatus Diaboli of the minority application of a new tariff which declared that the new scale of will last till 1896, and after that duties would destroy the cotton date as long as Congress may take industry of America, “and again to prepare a new one, cannot fail place the American market under to be a matter of the most serious the control of the English manu

consequence to this country. facturer,” who would of course

There are some broad general proceed to put up the price of features of the tariff which need spool cottons when he had had to be more particularly dwelt upthe satisfaction of sketching the on, and which lend themselves to ruins of American factories from more satisfactory treatment. the broken arches of Brooklyn

In the first place, the loss of Bridge! At this point, no doubt,

revenue under this bill is admitted; the British manufacturer's sense

had it followed the lines of the of humour, and his knowledge of Democratic Convention, and of business, will combine to render the original bill, there would have him less hopeful of such a pictur- been a greater deficit than is now esque and profitable pastime.

threatened. A larger importation The general characteristics of will, of course, even with reduced British trade, as it is likely to duties, give a good revenue. The be affected by the new tariff, may pension system, which inbe very briefly indicated by means creased year after year for the of the Annual Trade Returns for express purpose of consuming a 1893, the latest published. Our revenue which was too great to imports from the United States be handled, may be reduced in have shown much fluctuation, as

and other internal taxes the following table will show :

will be laid on. The income-tax,

for which elaborate provisions are Imports from United States. made, and which goes into opera

tion after January 1, 1895, will 1889

£95,461,475

no doubt add largely to the 1890

97,283,340

national revenue after the first 1891

104,409,050 1892

108,186,317

experiments have given some de1893

91,783,847 gree of skill to those who are to

was

cost;

duties upon

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collect it. The minority do not a provision for reciprocity, but for tackle this part of the scheme.

retaliation. [We pointed this out in In the next place, the great December 1892.) ft inflicts penalties

) It change in the bill is in the sub- upon the American people by making stitution of ad valorem duties for articles of the fiscal necessities of

them pay higher prices, for these the mixed and specific duties of other nations compel them to levy the tariffs of 1883 and 1890. duties upon the products of the This duty has been adopted with United States, which in the opinion a particular regard, we are told, of the President are reciprocally unfor the poorer classes. Twice in equal and unreasonable. Under the the history of the United States provisions of this section, Presidenthe ad valorem system was

tial proclamations have been issued im

imposing retaliatory posed—i.e., in 1842 and 1846-61. five articles (sugar, molasses, tea, cof

The two parties have always fee, and hides) when coming from divided in regard to it. The tariff certain countries.

These proclamaof 1842 was distinctly protective, tions have naturally led to ill feeling and specific duties were mixed in the countries thus discriminated with ad valorem duties. The tariff dence in which it has been claimed,

against, and to diplomatic corresponof 1846-61 was Democratic, and with apparent justice, that such disthough it adopted an ad valorem criminations were in violation of our scale, it yet maintained a pro- solemn treaty obligations." tection of from 20 to 40 per cent, which in those days was high pro- In expressing in December 1892 tection. The discussion will no our hope that the new régime in doubt continue, as there are no

America would have more respect elements of finality in it; and the for “the opinion of Christendom," change from the specific to ad

we had these proclamations, agreevalorem now will so change the ments, and treaties in view. character of the statistics that the It must be kept in mind that discussion of tariff questions in though many reductions have the United States will increase been made on the lines we have the number of inmates in the indicated, the new tariff is lunatic asylums.

distinctly Protective Tariff. The Thirdly, the article relating to average rate of duties imposed reciprocity provisions in the Act on dutiable importations in 1892 of 1890, under which the Presi- was 48.71 per cent. The rate dent made agreements and pro

that would have been imposed claimed them, is to be wholly under the duties in the original done away with. In June 1892,1 Wilson Bill would have been 30.31 and in December 1892,2 we had cent,-a protection which seems occasion to call attention to the high, and a source of revenue peculiar character of these

agree

which seems certain. This rate ments as they bore on the most- has now been raised. In view of favoured-nation clauses of treaties the fact that this 30 per cent averin which this country is interested. age-which in the case of particuIt is with pleasure we notice that lar lines of manufactured goods the majority report says

amounts of course to very much “This section has brought no ap

more-stands in the way of the preciable advantage to American ex- foreign exporter, we may accept porters; it is not in intention or effect with many “grains of salt” the

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1

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Colonies, Tariffs, and Treaties,” Blackwood's Magazine, June 1892. 2 “The Presidential Elections in America,” Blackwood's Magazine, Dec. 1892.

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every

statements made by the opponents the United States, unless such of the bill, that the English manu- vessels are entitled to enter the facturer is going to dominate the ports of the United States on American market; that the growth equal terms with the vessels of of any sort of sugar-cane or beet the United States by treaty or in the United States will be im- by Act of Congress. The free possible; that free salt will trans- importation of foreign articles for fer the New England markets to building and equipment and repair England and Canada; that free may indeed be a valuable concesflax and hemp will transfer that sion, and may be of service in the industry from America to India; building of ships; but inasmuch that the reduction of the silk as the United States has treaties, duties will remove all manufac- giving most-favoured or national tures to France, Germany, and treatment, with almost Japan; and that free coal would Power in the world possessing destroy the value of the coal de- ships in foreign trade, the 10 per posits of thirty-one States of the cent discriminating duty will have American Union. We have seen, no other obvious effect than that of course, that the financial fabric of increasing the number of such of the United States is a frail treaties, if there are any nations structure. It is hardly possible now not entitled.

But the singuto believe that after a century lar manner in which American of protection the manufacturing, public men have interpreted treamining, and agricultural indus- ties in times very recent, may tries of the United States are at make us feel that perhaps this the mercy

of the effete monarchies clause of the new tariff may afford and experimental Republics of encouragement at least to official Europe, even with a wire fence of ingenuity. 30 per cent to protect them.

The income-tax feature of the Again, an attempt, feeble enough new tariff is one that, like all the indeed, but well meant, has been features of the scheme, requires made to encourage that long-suffer- time for development. In the ing, and always delicate, national meantime it is one of the most industry-native shipping. This is noticeable parts of the scheme. It attempted in two ways.

In the has been hitherto supposed by first place, it is provided that all most American writers on politiarticles of foreign production im- cal economy that no income-tax ported for the construction and would again be placed on Ameriequipment, or repair, of vessels can citizens till the system of probuilt in the United States for for- tection had so stimulated the eign account, or for the purpose development of American natural of being employed in the foreign resources, and so increased home trade, including the trade between manufactures, that importation the Atlantic and the Pacific ports would largely cease, the revenue of the United States, may be im- from customs fall off, and some ported in bond; and upon proof new form of taxation would bethat such articles have been used come imperative. The last infor the purpose mentioned, no come-tax in the United States was duty shall be paid on them. In imposed during the pressure of the second place, it is provided war expenditure. It was a graduthat a discriminating duty of 10 ated tax extending from 5 to 71 and per cent shall be placed on all 10 per cent, according to income. goods imported in vessels not of It was altered from time to time

excess

was

according to the year's needs, be- was in items free of duty, the ginning at 3 per cent and 5 per dutiable articles — i.e., manufaccent in 1863; running up to 5 tures - being deterred by the and 10 per cent in 1866; declin- M‘Kinley tariff. The decreased ing to 5 per cent in 1867-70; and export to England was mainly in still further declining to 21 per bread - stuffs. The movement of cent in 1871-73, at which date it gold was the most remarkable ceased altogether. The total in- feature. We have indicated in an come from this source (including earlier part of this article the fact personal and corporate taxes) was that a borrowing nation cannot $347,220,897 in ten years. The pursue the rôle of a predatory picpresent rate is 2 per cent; and it is aroon among its creditors. This calculated that about $30,000,000 lesson was taught the United can be collected in this way. The States in 1893. The total excalculations made concerning this ports of gold to Europe ran up tax have revealed some very curi- from $59,952,285 in 1889, to ous things concerning this para- $108,680,844 in 1893; and imdise of labour and land flowing mediately from $50,195,327 in with whisky and wages; as, for 1892 to $108,680,844 in 1893—a example, that 31,500 persons own very startling jump in one year.

, more than half the total wealth of Nothing on the face of things the country, and that the number accounts for it. The of persons and corporations hav- of exports over imports ing incomes of more than $4000 $202,875,686, and in the nature is not more than 85,000. If we of things a considerable import of assume that the 85,000 are, say, gold ought to have taken place. heads of families—there are But the reverse was the case. figures as to the corporations-of, The export of gold to Great Britsay, five persons each, then we ain jumped from $6,508,060 in find that out of a population usu- 1892 to $21,415,797 in 1893, and ally put, since 1891, for public to France and Germany there discussion, at 70,000,000, only were like increases. There were 425,000 persons enjoy the direct no unusual disturbances in the benefit of incomes over $4000. It London money-market to call for seems incredible, in view of all we a demand for gold. Nevertheless sometimes hear about American the demand for gold on the United prosperity.

States was peremptory and perThe general characteristics of sistent. The truth is, that capital American trade during the year invested in the United States and ending June 30, 1893, show a in American securities was sudnumber of abnormal conditions. denly withdrawn owing to want These may be briefly indicated. of confidence. “ American GovThe imports from Europe show an ernment and railroad securities,” increase of $66,821,624. Of this says the official statistician,“ have increase, $26,558,888 came from been sent to this country in large Great Britain. The domestic blocks to be sold, while foreign exports to Europe decreased investors have made limited pur$189,106,919. Of this

chases in our stock and invest$78,991,774 consists of the de- ment markets, except when the creased trade with Great Britain. conditions were such as to offer The increased import from Great a special inducement to taking Britain is qualified by the fact chances—that is, in a time of disthat a large part of the increase tress bordering upon panic.” That

no

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so complete a breakdown should badly, as needlessly, and as often
have taken place in American as the American Senate has done
securities may serve as a warning within a period so short as to be
against a fiscal policy which tends within the memory of the most
to produce want of confidence and casual reader of the journals.
a desire for reprisals on the part The question may now be briefly
of creditor nations.

discussed, How long is this new Those who are now joining in tariff likely to last? The chief the insensate outcry against the speakers on each side have apHouse of Lords in this country, pealed to the future; those who for a perfectly legitimate exercise are in doubt as to results al

a
of a well-understood part of the ways

do. Mr Reed, of Maine,
functions of its office - i.e., the ex-Speaker, a man of much ability,
amendment or rejection of meas- concluded his remarks, his ora-
ures which in their judgment tion, against the Wilson Bill as
may not have received sufficient follows :-
consideration from the public-
would do well to consider the

“We know, my friends, that before

this tribunal we all of us plead in present and late attitude of the vain. Why we fail let those answer American Senate. This body, who read the touching words of Abratheoretically the elect of the ham Lincoln's first inaugural, and reelect, but practically the partisan member that he pled in vain with choice of, in many cases, purchased these same men and their predeces

Where he failed we cannot legislatures, delayed for months sors. the settlement of the Currency here to-day, like our great leader of

hope to succeed. But though we fail Question upon which the public other days in the larger field, before issued its 66 mandate," sternly the mightier tribunal which will finally enough, in November 1892, and and for ever decide this question we for a considerable time delayed, shall be more than conquerors ; for and have, in part, and in charac- this great nation, shaking off as it ter also, altered the Tariff Bill has once before the influence of a of the House of Representatives, its high destiny until over the South,

lower civilisation, will go on to fulfil passed in that House after weeks

as well as over the North, shall be of anxious and careful debate. spread the full measure of that amazThis same body has within a few ing prosperity which is the wonder months rejected the President's of the world.” nominee for the Supreme Court

On the other hand, Mr Wilson of the country, at the dictation of Virginia, the sponsor of the of one of the most objectionable

new tariff, concluded as follows:of the “ Boss” senators, and so maltreated the President's nominee

“This is not a battle over percentfor the post of American Minister ages, over this or that tariff schedule ; to Italy that, after being finally con- Mr Burke truly said, every great

it is a battle for human freedom. As firmed in his appointment, he re- battle for human freedom is waged signed the office in disgust. It will around the question of taxation. be well for those who think that the The men who had the opportunity to British House of Lords is a body sign the Declaration of Independence, with an imperfect organisation, to and refused or neglected because remember that it is a body with

there was something in it which they

did not like-thank God there were splendid and patriotic traditions, none such ; but if there had been, and that in all its history it has what would be their standing in hisnever thwarted the public will as tory to-day? If men on the battle

VOL. CLVI.—NO. DCCCCXLVIII.

2 P

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