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Praised be God! no race of crouching

Slaves is bred on Highland hills,
'Neath the sweep of snow-capped mountains,

Gusty glens, and tumbling rills.
Not a race of fondled children,

Basking 'neath a Southern sun,
Sleeping half the day, and thankful

When their span of work is done ;

But a race of men strong-hearted,

Deedful, daring, fearless men,
Finding dear delight in wrestling

With the storms that shake the Ben,-
Men for every chance well bucklered,

That man may meet beneath the sky;
And for every prize the noblest

Bravely sworn to do or die !

Such were they who made proud Edward

Pay presumption's lawful meed,
When he marched with bristling legions

To enslave the Scottish Tweed.
Many wives and many mothers

Then his folly taught to mourn,
When, like dust, his thousands fled

From kilted Scots at Bannockburn.

Such were they who, when the Stuart

Yoked our conscience to his own,
Rose, and with loud voice denounced him

Traitor to his Scottish throne;
Rose, and, to make sure our sacred

Right to read the book of God,
At Drumclog and Airs Moss freely

Dewed with martyrs' blood the sod.

Fare thee well! thou proud Ben Vrackie,

Thou, and all that share thy lot,-
Foaming Tummel, rustling Garry,

Tom na Monaghan's kindly cot. 1
Fare thee well! and when I travel,

Rambling near, or wandering far,
May thy lofty peak go with me
Surely as a guiding star!

J. S. BLACKIE.

on

1 A cottage on a lom or knoll, on the extreme west of Pitlochrie, where a road

right hand passes up to Ar racl This cottage and the adjacent lofty mansion belong to Miss Molyneux, a lady well known in the neighbourhood for her wealth of female graces and kindly hospitality.

THE NEW AMERICAN TARIFF.

once.

bills;

no

In December 1892, a few days external commerce. The readers after the Presidential election in of the former article will see that, the United States had resulted in as nearly two years have elapsed the victory of the Democrats, we since the Presidential election, our were enabled to present to our forecast of prudential slowness of readers a history of American movement has been sufficiently tariff policy and legislation, an exact. Of course the elections did account of the election contest not in America place power in the that had just closed, and an out- hands of a new administration at line of the changes likely to be Months had to elapse beeffected by the incoming adminis- fore the new President was inautration. We pointed out that the gurated. Other months had to performance of the Democratic elapse before Congress could be party would not come up to the called. In the meantime the acexpectations raised by the circus tivities of the country were para

that no one need expect lysed by the mandate which had even the appearance of a free- been menacingly issued by the trade tariff; that sudden people for wholesale changes in changes would be made; that the policy. Operations extending over Democratic party was too shrewd any but the briefest time were not to withdraw suddenly the props entered upon.

The menaced manfrom industries that had been ufacturers ceased to be active. created by the Republican system; Workmen began to be discharged. that a panic would be the result Contracts ceased in many instances if this were done; that time would to be filled. Strong banks began be given for the withdrawal of to pursue conservative lines on capital from the industries likely loaning, and weak banks sucto be effected by change; that a cumbed. The weakness of the considerable reduction of duties silver legislation revealed itself in would in the end be made on a universal want of confidence in goods not competing with Ameri- the silver currency. Those who can manufactures; and that fur- had national currency paper ther reductions would be made would not part with it. Wages on articles supposed to be over- could not in many cases be paid by protected, and on articles entering some of the richest corporations in largely into consumption by the America. Not alone the internal poor.

circumstances of the country conWe resume the discussion of an tributed to this result. The vinalways interesting subject for the dictive policy of the M'Kinley Bill, purpose of showing that this fore, which had threatened in turn thé cast has in the main been fulfilled; domestic and colonial commerce of placing once more before the of every nation in Europe, propublic the circumstances surround- voked its natural results. The ing the new legislation; and of Foreign Creditor, acting with the giving a general view of the relentless force of a natural law," Wilson Bill ”. as the new Tariff as capital always acts in interAct is called—and its bearing on national relations, returned upon

in

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1 “The Presidential Elections in America,” Blackwood's Magazine, Dec. 1892.

a

ure.

the hands of the United States the manufactures and imports and exgold-bearing securities in which ports, of other nations as well. perfect confidence could no longer And this disturbance has been probe placed; and the gold-borrowing longed for so long a period that nation was forced to recognise the though the Wilson Bill is now a fact that it could not with impuni- legislative measure, we are asked ty become a pirate to its creditors. by those who are opposed to it in A winter followed of such distress America to bear witness to the that the pangs of its poverty pene- fact that State elections already trated the remotest recesses of the show a reaction against the Democountry, and awakened in many crats, and that the new tariff will serious minds the terrors foretold not outlast its framers and their in Scripture of a great tribulation. four years of power.

In effect Finally Congress met; the Wilson this means that the financial and Bill was prepared and presented; commercial world is to be treated it was discussed at length with to four years more of experiment much bitterness and some scenes of after 1896, with the assurance disturbance; and has at length, that the reactionists will return after several revisions, been brought bringing seven other M'Kinleys forth a complete legislative meas- with them. If the powers

of com

bination in Europe are exhausted, Two points may be noticed be- and the kings of capital have lost fore we proceed to deal directly their genius for finance, may we with the effects of the bill.

not venture to express a hope that The first point is political, and there may be found in the widestregards the United States itself. extended empire the world has Those who in this country have ever seen some resource in a union, been snared by the cant of catch- if not of hands and hearts, at least ing phrases concerning “ Federal” of policy and purses, against this government, may look with alarm, systematic revolt on the part of if not with positive terror, to this America against the commerce of example of a Government in which the world? the Popular Will, though over- The Wilson Bill was committed whelmingly expressed, is yet made to the committee of the whole powerless for many months (in House of Representatives, from this case for two years) by the the Committee of Ways and Means, rigidity of a written constitution. by Mr Wilson of Virginia, on DeTwice in our own recent political cember 19, 1893. It was alleged history, in 1874 and in 1880, such in the Committee's report that the sweeping popular votes had the American people had decided that effect of placing power almost im- the existing tariff was wrong in mediately in the hands of the men principle and unjust in operation. in whom the country had expressed The power of taxation had no lawconfidence, But in the United ful or constitutional exercise except States such expression was vain. for providing revenue for the sup

The second point is commercial, port of Government: this proposiand affects all the world, the tion, it may be observed, was in United States included. It will contradiction of two of the bestbe seen that the uncertainty which known decisions of the United has prevailed regarding the tariff States Supreme Court in support has affected not merely the manu- of a protection tariff. factures, the imports and exports “ So many private interests,” says of the United States, but also the this very remarkable report, have

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been taken into partnership with the tion.” And when this declaration Government, so many private enter- of 1892 is followed in 1894 by this prises now share in the rich prerog; other declaration in the report on ative of taxing seventy millions of the Wilson Bill—“But in dealing people, that any attempt to dissolve this illegal union is necessarily en

with the tariff, as with every other countered by an opposition that rallies long-standing abuse that has interbehind it the intolerance of monopoly,

woven itself with our social or the

power of concentrated wealth, the industrial system, the legislator inertia of fixed habits, and the honest must always remember that, in errors of a generation of false teach

the beginning, temperate reform ing."

is safest, having in itself the 'prinThis, indeed, was “comfortable ciple of growth'”-it is obvious doctrine,” but the “Glory, Ilalle- that a sense of humour is required lujahs!" of a pious Democracy had to appreciate the situation. The hardly been uttered when the fol- great American joke is lowing sentences burst on their played out. startled ears :

The gentlemen of the minority

on the Committee put forth, of “ The bill on which the Committee has expended much patient and anx

course, the legend on the other ious labour is not offered as a complete side of the shield. They pointed response to the mandate of the Ameri

out that this new tariff would can people. It no more professes to deprive the country at once of be purged of all protection than to be $74,000,000 of revenue at a time free of all error in its complex and when the latest figures available manifold details. However we may proved that the revenue was only deny the existence of any legislative pledge or the right of any Congress to $2,000,000 above the expenditures. make such pledge for the continuance

This was indeed a point to which of duties that carry with them more or

the majority bad addressed themless acknowledged protection, we are selves, as they had stated that forced to consider that great interests they looked to the increase of comdo exist, whose existence and pros- merce to make up the loss of revperity it is no part of our reform either to imperil or to curtail."

enue, and also that they intended

to bring in measures of internal If the long delay in bringing in a

revenue taxation- an income-tax measure justified our forecast as to among other things—to recoup the time, this language fully justifies treasury. The Republicans also our forecast as to the smallness of pointed out that “the larger part the " free trade" revival that was of the burden of taxation is transto follow. That the Wilson Bill ferred from foreigners and borne should be denounced by the most by our own citizens ”— this being vigorous of the Democratic daily an old and favourite theory of the papers as a fraud on the public, Republican party. Naturally, the which had issued its "mandate" Republicans also pointed out that in November 1892, was not very the Democratic bill falsified the remarkable. In the Democratic Democratic pledges, and was a dis

platform ” of 1892 we may read tinct abandonment of the “manas follows: “We denounce Re- date of the people. That the Republican protection as a fraud, a publicans should take advantage of robbery of the great majority of the obvious failure of the Demothe American people for the bene- crats to fulfil their election pledges fit of the few. We denounce was only natural.

But the plea the M‘Kinley tariff as the cul- did not carry much weight in the minating atrocity of class legisla- House, though it will have its

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effect on the next elections. To the Republican minority, however, catch the Republicans bathing, contended that as experience had and to steal their clothes, is not shown that the woollen manufaca policy which can be permanently turers of the United States needed successful.

30 to 40 per cent to protect them The political aspect of the bill during many years, they would having been thus presented, in a necessarily collapse when the duty manner, we trust, sufficiently clear, was removed. The item came into the purely business character of it the original bill at from 15 to 40 may be indicated in a general way. per cent ad valorem, instead of The bill has been reported” at the high, mixed, specific, and ad

“ various stages, as it came from the valorem duty under the Act of House Committee, as it emerged 1890. The classification and confrom the House of Representatives, ditions of import were also changed, as it was reported from the Senate and the reduction of the duty was Committee, as it was placed before spread over a period of years, enda joint committee, and as it has ing in 1900—reminding us of the been finally passed. Each stage Irishman's way of cutting off his witnessed a change in its features. dog's tail a little at a time “to A few examples will suffice. Thus, make it aisy for the baste !” The the Wilson Bill, by means of the item finally emerges on the free majority report of the House Com- list, and the authorities have demittee, recommended the freedom cided that wool will not have to of iron and coal as the basis of be re-exported and re-entered in modern industry. The Republican order to obtain the benefit of the minority protested that this con- new duty. The Canadian border cession was given to manufacturers would have been made use of, by at the cost of the mines and the arrangement, in such a case, as is railways. The item of iron and its sometimes done in the case of manufactures finally appeared in liquors that have remained too the bill as passed in the House of long in bond, on which duty Representatives, at from 10 to 35 would have to be paid at once per cent ad valorem, instead of the if the goods were not re-entered. specific duty of so much per pound, Books still remain at 25 per as under the M'Kinley Bill of 1890 cent ad valorem under the beand the tariff of 1883. It emerges neficent influence of the printers' finally subject to a mixed specific unions, who had power also to and ad valorem schedule, the ad prevent copyright, except on the valorem duties showing in some condition of printing in the United cases an increase to 45 per cent, States; and the rule which allowed though there is still a general re- books in foreign languages to come duction of the specific duties on in free, while English books were articles of common use, as com

taxed, has been invidiously repared with the M‘Kinley Bill. tained. Sugar has been made

Wool was also put on the free more free by the abolition of the list in the original bill, the old domestic bounty given by the duty not having been, in the M‘Kinley Bill; but it is not quite opinion of the Democratic major- easy to say how an ad valorem ity, beneficial in its operation, and duty (with specifics in addition) a revival of woollen industry being of 40 per cent is going to be of expected under a régime of free any advantage to any but the wool. The Advocatus Diaboli of local producer, who can afford to

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