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error, which, if statesmen and formist agitators—which by many legislators are misled by it, may very superior persons is alleged to be disastrous. It would be news prevail in them. If we can find to us that, among either the arti

no reason a priori why such feelor the peasantry of Great ings should exist, still less do we Britain, any such feeling as this find any signs of them in contemlast existed. We do not mean to porary facts. Discontented, dissay

that early in the present cen- affected men, longing for extensive tury, when the factory question changes and social revolution, do first came to the surface, there was not usually vote for Conservatives. not a very bitter feeling between Yet this is what a large majority employers and employed in some of the English working classes do. of our great centres of industry. We do not anticipate, therefore, But although the old controversy that the “new democracy” will between labour and capital still rise up en masse of its own accord survives, nobody will pretend to and destroy the British Constitusay that it is still marked by any tion. Three centuries of kindly of that personal animosity which is relations between class and class represented in the pages of Sybil.' leave an impression behind them In the rural districts there have which is not to be effaced in a been periods when a very angry day. But at the same time we feeling prevailed among the agri- are never permitted to forget even cultural labourers ; but that was for a moment that we have a new roused by the introduction of force to reckon with at the present machinery, and was chiefly direct- day unknown to our forefathers, ed against the farmers. The peas- and that is agitation. By the use antry have quarrelled with the of this machinery small but resofarmers, and the farmers have lute minorities enabled to quarrelled with their landlords. exercise a degree of influence out But there has been no feud be- of all proportion to the real amount tween the landlords and the peas- of public opinion by which they antry. In some of the most recent are supported. By noisy demonreports of the Assistant Agricul- strations attended by large crowds, tural Commissioners there is evi- which can be collected at a few dence to show that the labourers hours' notice, they acquire among in England fully appreciate the the thoughtless part of the nation position of the gentry, understand a reputation for power and

poputhe losses they have endured and larity which they do not really posthe sacrifices they have made, and sess, and contrive to impress upon thoroughly sympathise with them. the same unreflecting class a vague Again, there has been no hostility kind of idea that it is useless to of any

kind between the peasantry resist them. Behind all this noise, and the clergy. The clergy have all these numbers, all this fiery done nothing to injure or to irri- indignation, there must, they tate them, even though we allowed, think, be some amount of truth. what is scandalously false, that Whether there really is any or they had done nothing to benefit not, they are too indolent to inthem. Neither in towns nor quire; and in this way a kind of country, therefore, would it be spurious public opinion is gennatural to expect any of that erated, which it is difficult to disviolent class feeling-beyond what tinguish from the genuine, and is is directly stirred up by Noncon- made to pass for such so often

are

that the difference between them As for such flaring demonstrais forgotten. Agitation is now tions as the Leeds Conference, we reduced to a system and raised do not believe for a moment that to the dignity of a profession. a single convert will be made to And this is the new power, and the Gladstonian party by so transnot the new democracy itself, parent a device

as this.

The which Conservatives really have House of Lords has just saved to fear.

the people from two great dangers : They have to fear it more es

it has secured for them an opporpecially for this reason, that it tunity of speaking their minds is a force with which they are freely on certain great questions not well qualified to cope. Agi- in which they are deeply interested, tation is not their rôle; yet it and has assisted to complete the is difficult to fight the agitators work of local government begun except with their own weapons. and nearly finished by the preIt is their business to show that vious Administration. And for no good thing can come out of the this, forsooth, those who figure as Conservative party; to blacken the people's friends demand their every boon which they offer to the condign punishment. What the people; and to declare that, if House of Lords has done is not they ever pass any measure for to injure the demos, but to disthe benefit of the labouring class, credit the demagogue. Hinc illo they are only seeking to betray lacrymce. But there is nothing them with a kiss. It is the poison to be feared from this kind of thus instilled into the minds of thunder, as harmless as Mons that numerous class who hold the Meg herself. It is the daily work destinies of England in their of slander and calumny which is hands, which is the only thing carried on by the emissaries of likely to operate against their Radicalism in every pot-house in cordial reception of the new Con- the kingdom which constitutes our servative programme.

And we

real danger, and not the unwieldy fear it is to the natural common- and antiquated weapons fired off sense and love of fair-play to be by Sir W. Lawson and Mr Laboufound in Englishmen of all classes chere. It is this creeping, crawlthat we must look for an antidote, ing, but ubiquitous agitation which rather than to anything which will come between the working Conservatives themselves can do man and the real practical benefits to counteract the evil. The hope. intended for him, if anything can ful sign, on the other hand, is this, have that effect. All that Conthat both north and south of the servatives can do is to try to Tweed there are evidently large sec

brush
away

the lies as fast as tions of the population which are they are spun. They cannot pelt proof against this system of false. the Radicals back again with their hood, and that more than half the own mud.

But they may hold working men have begun to find aloft the Conservative banner, and out that the Radicals have been take care that the people underonly making cat's paws of them. stand what is written upon it.

Printed by William Blackwood and Sons.

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SINCE the days when Ziethen struggle creates moments of crisis, and Seidlitz contributed so bril- when the influence of control no liantly to the victories of Frederick longer has sway, and when, in spite the Great, the cavalry arm has of the fire of breechloading rifles, undergone considerable vicissitude. the bravest infantry, if assailed at Quarter of a century ago the con- the right moment, may be ridden viction was all but universal that over like a flock of sheep. Marsthere was no longer any métier for la-Tour created a revolution in the cavalry on the battle-field. At estimate of the cavalry arm held every field-day, in every newspaper, by the Great Powers of continental the cavalry was told that its sun Europe. Since that memorable had set for ever; and it was little day they have been unanimous in wonder that under pressure

the conviction that an adequate powerful the mounted arm force of highly trained cavalry is to distrust its own potentialities. absolutely indispensable to the But under the test of actual battle safety and success of a modern the theories of the pessimists went army in the field, and they are to water; and at Mars-la-Tour the exerting earnest and continuous charges of Bredow's brigade and of effort to perfect the efficiency of the 1st Guard Dragoons proved their mounted arm in every detail. triumphantly what results well-led The approaching cavalry manand well-disciplined cavalry could @uvres, which are to be held this accomplish, even in the most un- year for the first time under the favourable conditions, and against independent command and direcinfantry still unshaken. The great tion of the inspector-general of fact came then to be realised, that cavalry, may advantageously direct the very intensity of the infantry the attention of the country to

VOL. CLVI. -NO. DCCCCXLVI.

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sundry questions of great import- respective armies presently come ance alike to its protective and its into collision; and it is the cavfinancial interests. It is proposed alry which has succeeded in dein this article to inquire whether feating that of the enemy that the cavalry arm of our military thenceforth will achieve important service has attained and continues successes in gaining intelligence. to maintain the standard of effi- “Then only,” in the words of Von ciency demanded by the require- der Goltz, “ will individual officers ments of modern war, and there- and small detachments be able to fore justifies its existence as a very penetrate to the enemy. supecostly item in the annual Armyrior strength of advance-cavalry Estimates. If such inquiry shall is master of the situation, the result in the demonstration that superiority not wholly consisting the standard of efficiency in the in numbers, but also in a just cavalry is below that undoubtedly proportion of efficiency and numattained by the other arms, it bers; and the weaker cavalry seems eminently proper to deter- must accept the fate of being mine to what extent this is so, driven back upon its main body, and to attempt to ascertain on to which it becomes rather an enwhom rests the blame for the in- cumbrance instead of an advanjury inflicted on the country in tage.” being burdened with an unduly Valuable as are the services of large charge for an inferior produc- the cavalry while acting as the tion.

eyes and ears of an army, its tacIn the consideration of this sub- tical duties on the battle-field are ject, it may be useful to the gen- not of less importance.

These eral reader to be briefly told what may be briefly summed up as folis the raison d'être of cavalry in lows: To endeavour to gain the modern war.

Its rôle is twofold: flank or rear of the enemy, with on the march, and on the battle- intent to gain information and field. On the march its cavalry create a diversion : to assist and are the eyes with which an army support any movement of the sees, and the ears with which it other arms made with the object hears. From the beginning of an of outflanking the enemy: to preadvance the cavalry is out in its vent, retard, or give timely notice front and on its flanks, at once of any attempt of this nature protecting and informing the made by the enemy: to push forarmy, which marches safely and ward detachments along the roads trustingly within the screen which by which reinforcements to the it affords. The information which enemy may be expected, to give the zeal and the forwardness of early notice of the approach of the cavalry gathers and sends in such, and to harass and impede has the advantage over that fur- them should they appear.

It

may nished by spies, in that it is fur- be added that, as in the province nished by professional soldiers of strategy, so in the sphere of who, because of their superior tactics must the hostile cavalry intelligence and conversance with be overthrown before any useful the features of war, are capable of end can be obtained. The raison forming an opinion as to its value. d'être of cavalry, then, may be As the advance proceeds, the cav- shortly summed up as follows: alry divisions which precede the (1) To carry out its strategic and tactical rôle as generally outlined cavalry forces of fairly equal above; and (2) to everpower and strength engage, victory will cerparalyse the enemy's cavalry. tainly belong to the side which

The necessity to an army of to- possesses the higher morale. No day of a sufficiently numerous and one who cares to picture in impowerful cavalry force having been agination the conditions of a thus indicated, the reader may cavalry combat can fail instincfairly desire to ask for a definition tively to recognise that in it this of the characteristics which con-quality must exercise a far more stitute a perfectly efficient cavalry. powerful influence than in any The succinct reply is, that a cavalry other kind of fight. What, then, force may be held to possess all the are the elements which go to connecessary attributes whose men stitute this morale ? They are and horses are physically fit in all various and they are cumulative. respects for the cavalry service— The leader must be known and the men good riders and the horses trusted by his men. The character thoroughly trained ; which is and value of each individual man equipped in the most serviceable must be known to the leader by manner ; which is commanded and virtue of the latter's experience in led by competent officers and the training and instruction of the leaders thoroughly known to their former. The superior officers must men, by whom they have been in- be possessed of tried and acknowstructed and trained in peace-time, ledged competence to command. and in whom they have full confi- An organisation must exist which dence; which is possessed of an shall keep close together in action organisation lending itself most men who have been trained and readily to the kind of work re- instructed together in peace-time. quired in war, and requiring no A spirit of mutual confidence must radical changes on mobilisation; pervade all ranks, accompanied and, finally, which has been by the highest discipline and an thoroughly trained and instructed individual and collective resolution in all the duties it may be called to conquer or die. upon to undertake in war by the While a high standard of morale, officers who will lead and com- engendered by a sound organisamand it.

tion and a careful system of trainThe first two of these attributes ing and instruction, must imbue are simply the ordinary require the whole body when acting toments of every reasonably efficient gether, this thorough military edufighting body. But some comment cation is calculated to inspire in is worth being made on the three the individual non-commissioned latter, since in their fulfilment a officer and private trooper the principle is involved which is noble virtues of self-command and peculiar to this arm, and which is self-reliance. In one of the most to it what fire-power is to the other important duties of cavalry—the arms, yet which is habitually dis- service of reconnaissance—the exregarded in the preparation of our perience may befall a small scoutcavalry for war. It is an un- ing party, consisting mayhap only questioned fact-proved by history of a corporal and two men—nay, and testified to by leaders of ex- it may occur to one lone man—to perience in the most recent Con- be isolated in the midst of dangers, tinental

– that when two extrication from which can be ac

wars

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