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was only a question of time.” once, and if beaten it is better to Thenceforward we chapter of the first volume that Every one knows that the seven Bismarck's master-mind and iron weeks were over before the neutrals will controlled everything. Where had time to think or interfere. he did not directly or indirectly Lord Augustus suggests that the originate, he guided the course of result might have been different events

. Subtle as strong, adroit had Austria grasped the situation and unscrupulous, he had the best and departed from her traditions of the game of diplomacy through- of procrastination. She knew that out. At first, realising the peril Italy had sent an envoy to Berlin of the stake, he seems to have to arrange

alliance. She shrunk from precipitating the war learned in April 1866 that a forwith Austria. He knew that war mal treaty was signed. Only then was inevitable, but he was inclined did she offer to give up Venetia in to wait. He would have been con- exchange for neutrality.

" Had tent to annex Schleswig-Holstein, the offer been made before the which would have given Prussia signature of the treaty, the disimportant naval stations, and he trust then entertained of Prussia would have paid liberally in cash. would probably have induced When he saw that Austria would General La Marmora to accept it. listen to no proposals of the kind, But it was too late, and he was too he was resolved to fight for some- honourable a man to violate his thing worth the having. He re- pledge.” The result was that Aussolved to raise the whole question tria parted with many of her staunof the suppresion of the antiquated chest soldiers to fight the Italians, Confederation and of the military while mutinous Italian regiments supremacy of Prussia to the north swelled the forces of Benedict. of the Main. The king, with his The Prussian artillerymen were old-fashioned ideas of divine right, surprised and delighted at the was slow to be persuaded, and only murderous effect of their cannonreluctantly yielded when irritated ade. Whole ranks of the enemy by the Austrian rejection of his fell prostrate. As it proved afteramicable advances. The Chan- wards, the fallen were Lombards cellor had a free hand, and he and Venetians, who had no mind carried his resolution into effect. to be killed for a cause they deLord Augustus relates a memor

tested. able incident:

No one was more taken aback

by the sudden cessation of hosI was with Count Bismarck late tilities than the Emperor of the on the evening of June 15. We had

French. It seems to have been been walking and sitting in his garden his policy to create a moderately till a late hour, when, to my astonishment, it struck midnight. Count strong Italian confederation which Bismarck took out his watch and would owe him gratitude and rely said, “ À l'heure qu'il est, nos troupes on him for support, and to set sont entrées en Hanovre, Saxe, et Central Germany by the ears.

No Hesse Cassell.' He added, "The

one will probably ever know what struggle will be severe. lose, but at all events she will have actually passed between him and fought bravely and honourably. If Bismarck at Paris and Biarritz. we are beaten, Count Bismarck said, There is little doubt that Bis'I shall not return here. I shall fall marck befooled him with delusive in the last charge. One can but die promises, which he had neither the

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power nor the wish to keep. Yet sions grew steadily, till they became it is noteworthy that in a French aggressively intolerable; and he despatch, dated in 1861, and pro- declares that the Ems incident, posing a Congress for the pacifi- used with such calamitous effect in cation of Europe, it was stated the French Chamber, was the shamecategorically that “France had less invention of imaginative audano claim to make for herself.” city. Throughout the war EngBe that as it may, the unification land's neutrality was regarded with of Italy and the enormous acces- distrust, if not with resentment, sion of strength acquired by Prus- by both the combatants; and Lord sia threw the minds of the French Stanley's diplomatic advances for into a natural ferment. The Em- mediation were coldly or peror by grace of a plebiscite temptuously received. From which must do something to satisfy Lord Augustus draws the moral, patriotic excitement. Thenceforth that we are generally far too eager he made appeal after appeal to to proclaim our neutrality. We Bismarck for political compensa- should do more good if we went tion and territorial concessions. on the golden maxim of keeping Some of the ever-fluctuating de- silence, leaving it to be inferred mands were simply extravagant. that upon occasion we should be When he asked for the cession of willing to strike in. And if France the northern banks of the Upper paid a terrible penalty for her Rhine, comprising several of the folly, England by no means escaped most formidable of historical scot-free. She lost the best part federal fortresses, Bismarck had of the fruits which had

very

inadeno difficulty in answering that quately repaid her for all the blood German sentiment made the pro- and the treasure expended in the posal inadmissible. The only al- Orimea. Before the Franco-Prusternative was the annexation of sian war broke out, Prince Gortssmall independent States. Thence chakoff had paid an unofficial visit arose the troublesome Luxemburg to Berlin. Lord Augustus could business—though Luxemburg it- learn nothing precise at the time self was an almost impregnable as to the matters in discussion befederal fortress—which Lord Au- tween the Chancellors.' He undergustus had a considerable share in stood it better when, before the settling. Then came the famous surrender of Paris, Prince Gortssecret treaty with respect to Bel- chakoff repudiated the treaty which gium, in regard to disclosing which had guaranteed the neutrality of Lord Augustus chanced to be an- the Black Sea. Bismarck wished ticipated by the Times.' He that his too astute friend had fully confirms Bismarck's version. waited, when he might have dealt

was drafted in foolish with him as he had dealt with the confidence by Benedetti, though Emperor of France. The Germans very probably at the dictation of then had more on their bands than

As to who was re- they could well manage, and Engsponsible for the French war, land might perhaps make trouble.

assures us that But England in her isolation was Bismarck never desired it. On content to acquiesce, and so the the contrary, both he and his royal treaty was torn up. master went to great lengths in

from the way of reasonable concession. Berlin to St Petersburg, the posiHe says that the French preten- tion of Lord Augustus was still

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more delicate. Socially he was lowed his instincts, he would never made welcome in the capital ; per- have reared a barrier of free sonally he was on excellent terms Danubian and Balkan States to with Prince Gortschakoff and M. block any future advance by land De Giers, and the Emperor was on Constantinople. He always pronot only invariably affable, but tested that he did not covet Conencouraged him to speak his mind stantinople - a declaration which with unreserve. The fact may be received as a pious opinion, mained that, both in Europe and and taken in any case for what Asia, Russia and England were it is worth. For Lord Augustus invariably antagonistic. Prince acquits the Czar and his War Gortschakoff used courteous lan- Ministers of any deliberate design guage to conceal his thoughts, and of aggressive Asiatic ambition. answered expostulations with pi- He says they always ridiculed the quant epigrams. The Emperor idea of a Russian invasion of Inwas always complaining of the dia, and that may be very true. unfriendly mistrust of his inten- The fact remains that they are tions displayed by the English always keeping us on the alert, and Cabinet and press.

On one occa- forcing us into vast expenditure, sion he placed Lord Augustus in by stirring up troubles among the sore embarrassment by begging frontier tribes and making danhim to explain a satirical cartoon gerous demonstrations.

The exin Punch. Undoubtedly the mis- planation is, according to Lord

' trust was too well founded. The Augustus, that they are bound to discouraging prospect in our rela- keep their enormous army in goodtions with Russia is, that there humour. Central Asia is to Russeems no rational possibility of sia what Algeria was to France, putting them on a satisfactory and aspiring officers covetous of footing. Lord Augustus is opti- fame and advancement are not to mistic in the extreme, and hopes

be controlled. They might be good things for the future.

Un- coerced were they to be disgraced fortunately, all that he says goes in place of being promoted and to dispel such fond illusions. We decorated, but that is a step on regard the Czar as an absolute which neither the Czar nor his autocràt; but, setting Nihilism Ministers dare venture. So it and Socialism aside, there are other seems that we must still stand on forces which even his authority our defence on the fortified line of cannot control. It was religious

It was religious the Indus, with Herat and the fanaticism and the enthusiastic highlands of Afghanistan as outsentiment of Pan-Slavism which lying bastions which may be beforced him reluctantly into the trayed to the enemy at any time last Turkish war. Had he fol- or carried with a rush.

1

THE NEW AFRICAN CRISIS WITH FRANCE AND GERMANY.

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It appears to be hardly appreci- The reasons which led to the ated in this country how very conclusion of this treaty are serious is the difficulty with Ger- follows: Great Britain in 1890 many

and France which has arisen claimed the Nile valley as part of over the Anglo-Congolese agree- her African “sphere of influence,” ment recently concluded. The Egypt having withdrawn from it. Franco-German war arose from a The value of the Nile waterway, less serious dilemma, and the tone and of the Sudan as a recruitingof the Ministerial announcement ground and a territory rich in read in the French Chamber—pre- ivory and other products, was viously carefully prepared-proves overshadowed by the political imthat France considers that she has portance of its relation to Egypt very serious grounds of complaint, and the Red Sea ports, and the and means to act with vigour and predominant influence which the decision to “defend her rights” Power in control of the Upper -even should that involve a con- Nile would necessarily exercise in flict with Great Britain. While the Delta provinces. In the treaty France has thus declared before with Germany (July 1, 1890) EngEurope that she considers the land, as we have said, notified her treaty “null and void," and has claims, to which Germany (having voted without discussion a sum of in return for Heligoland shut her£80,000 to reinforce her posts on self out from any extension norththe Oubanghi, and has ordered the wards) of course agreed. France despatch of gunboats to support did not protest, as she did in the them, the attitude of the authori- matter of the Zanzibar protecties in England appears to be one torate established by the of comparative indifference. The treaty. But the treaty was not situation has evoked remarkably with France, and it is feasible for little discussion in Parliament, and her to argue that she reserved her the whole British press unites in rights; and as there was no idea of scoffing at French sensitiveness, and a British occupation of the Nile in asserting without investigation valley, it was not imperative that the arguments urged in the upon her to raise any disclaimer, Continental press are quite value- since she was not a party to less. It is well, therefore, that the treaty. Great Britain, then, the British public should hear having excluded Germany and how the matter really stands, Italy from the Nile valley by and should understand that the treaty, found that King Leopold difference is one which has arisen had despatched an expedition over a question of very great po- thither from the Congo State, and litical importance, and not merely had occupied certain points on the concerning a “few square miles of Nile. The king was fully justiAfrican desert or swamp," so that fied in doing this, for, anterior to an independent public opinion the German treaty, an agreement may be formed on the matter, had been drawn up, signed, and since we are already committed to ratified, between himself and Sir a grave international crisis.

William Mackinnon (President of VOL. CLVI.-NO. DCCCCXLV.

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the Imperial British East Africa information on the spot, at a cost Company), by which access to which would have gone a long the Nile was permitted to him, way towards occupying the Nile in return for the cession of a Valley. The information was not strip of territory connecting required,-even the basis on which the north of Lake Tanganyika the Commissioner formed his conwith the British sphere. Lord clusions was not accepted, for the Salisbury, however, forbade the railway is not to be made, and Company to acquire sovereign (subsequent to the receipt of his rights, as representing England, despatches in England) a policy of though he had no objection to extension into Unyoro was adopted their acquiring a lease of a priv- contrary to his recommendations. ate nature purely as a Company. Having thus continued absolutely For, as now appears, Germany in inactive, and having done nothing the treaty of 1890 expressly stip- whatever to substantiate ulated that her frontier should claims in the Nile Valley between march with the Congo State. 1890 and 1894, when the com“The British Government,” says mander in Uganda could with the Cologne Gazette'(15th June), ease have done what was required "strove with great persistency at small cost, the Government in 1890 to obtain the cession of suddenly awoke to find that a strip of country in this same large French expedition had region, and Germany absolutely massed at Abiras (junction of the refused it, as involving a serious Wellé and Mbomu rivers), and its detriment to her Colonial inter- destination was apparently the ests.” Lord Salisbury's veto to Nile Valley. Something had to the Company, however, did not be done, unless we were to be concancel the right the king had ac- tent to see our assertion of suzequired under the agreement of ex- rainty in the Nile Valley set aside, tending towards the Nile. No and France, our rival in Egypt, sooner, however, had the king obtain possession of the Hinter(availing himself of our assertion land of Egypt. A forward policy that we would raise no objec- —the despatch of an expedition

“ tion” if he went to Lado) acted from Uganda-would not be tolon the implied permission, than erated by the Radical supporters he was met by protests from the of Government, and so once more, Foreign Office Lord Kimberley as in the case of East Africa and in his letter to Mr Hardinge (re- Uganda, a timid compromise had cently published as a Blue-book) to be accepted to save a few thoustates officially that these pro- sand pounds,—and it has landed tests were made and renewed from us in a serious quarrel with France, time to time. The king, however, and a difliculty with Germany and preferred not to show his hand, Turkey. Such are Radical methods but temporised, and meanwhile of economy ! pushed on his forces into Equa- King Leopold was supposed to toria. This, then, was the posi- be in effective occupation up to tion in the beginning of 1894. Lado. It was decided to reverse We had spent two years in vacil- our policy, withdraw our protests, lating as to whether or not we and ask his assistance to secure would retain Uganda, and had our sovereign rights. Since it was sent up a commissioner to acquire England herself who had laid

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