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returned, but when they were again gentleman writes me that on Saturattacked, the men were not to be day morning the two armies met near blamed, for they could by no means Preston, just by Colonel Gairdner's get their horses keeped in nor to hand, house, where, after a fight of about so went off the best way they could. twenty minutes, the Highlanders got

“A gentleman who saw the battle the most compleat victory ever was says that Cope's army fired twice be heard of. They did not lose 30 men, fore we came off, and that Cope's men and they killed many officers and 300 fired too soon without orders, for soldiers and took 1200 prisoners, and their oflicers had discharged them to amongst the killed are Captain Rogers fire till they thought it a proper time. and Captain Stewart of Phisgill, beThis is all I can learn.”

sides those that I have already named

to you in the inclosed, and the Master The excuse here about the raw

of Torphichan is much wounded.” ness of the horses may pass for what it is worth ; but the other Public means of communication statements in both letters about through the country there seems to the numbers of the Prince's forces have been none—at least to such are gross exaggerations. Accord- an outlying district as Peeblesshire. ing to trustworthy authority, the People resident there had to look to whole troops under his command exceptional and accidental sources amounted to 2400. Of these only for news. “Our lasses,” Mr Chrisabout 1456 were actually engaged tie tells us, were at Peebles yesterin the battle. Cope's army reached day (September 26), where they 2100, but the whole were not in learned from action.

"a gentleman from Edinburgh that Three days after the battle we

all is quiet there, and the oflicers who have further news about it. Mr

are prisoners are going in the street Christie, anxious about his son, had on their parole, and that the Prince sent a servant, John Ker, to Edin- should have said that he was ready burgh, to ascertain, if possible, cer

to forgive all the gentlemen, clergytain tidings regarding him. Mr men, and others who took arms Christie writes to Mr Burnett they would beg his pardon, and do so

against him as volunteers, providing (Tuesday, 24th September 1745), no more; and that they were carrygiving these interesting particulars ing up what they wanted to the about the battle :

Castle, and no opposition made by “My servant, John Ker, came here

the P. [Prince] or the Highlanders. from Edinburgh betwixt five and six

A great many more Highlanders are last night (Monday, 23 September). expected, and hundreds of them com

ing in He brought me a letter from a gentleman there, who writes me that he Mr Christie heard in a day or spake with one Doctor Hepburn, who spoke with my son and Generall Folk two, by express from Lady Cran[Fowke], when they had got safe ston, that his son the lieutenant, about a mile from the field of battle, and her son George, in the same and that Hepburn was very well regiment, were well at Berwick. acquainted with my son, and rode The Prince at length, after his a mile with them towards Dunbar, gay sojourn in Holyrood, resolved where they say he is at present safe to march south on London. It and not wounded. This makes us a little more easie. My son's servant

was a daring enterprise, and, with went off about six this morning from

the materials at his command, this [Neidpath] towards Dunbar and most hazardous.

Still it was quite Berwick in quest of his master. The in the line of his temper and



1 Corroborated in Cope's Trial, p. 73.


the mood which had led him to ley by Stobo and Tweedsmuir. A the advance on Edinburgh and to detachment of it, according to victory at Preston. The Highland what seems a well-founded tradiforces proceeded to England in tion, took the route by Traquair three divisions. On the evening and crossed the hills to Yarrow, of Friday, 1st November, a portion making their way to Moffat by under the Marquis of Tullibar- St Mary's Loch and Moffatdale. dine set out from Dalkeith for Possibly the Highlanders had bePeebles. Their design was to come aware of the fact that one march


the Tweed to Moffat, so laird near Peebles, who had been as to reach Carlisle. The contin- requisitioned for supplies, had gent under the Prince made for sent his horses and cattle for Lauderdale, and the third division safety to the seclusion of Megwent by Galashiels, Selkirk, Haw- gatdale, which lay on their way. ick, and Mosspaul.

There was but one Jacobite reThe western division under siding in the parish of Stobo at Tullibardine arrived at Peebles the time. All the other people, on the evening of Saturday, 2d fearing the Highlanders, had withNovember :

drawn, and hidden their horses

and cows. “The sun was setting as the first

This solitary believer lines devolved from the hills which

in the Pretender disdained to put environ the place on every side, and his cow out of the line of their throwing back a thousand threatening march. The result was, that notglances from the arms of the mov- withstanding his belief in the ing band, caused inexpressible alarm

trustworthiness and lofty motives among the peaceful townsmen, who had only heard enough about the

of the band, his cow was carried insurrection and its agents to make off by them—the solitary trophy

— nem fear the worst fr such a isit. from the parish of Stobo. Sir “There's the Hielantmen ! there's the David Murray of Hillhouse, where Hielantmen !' burst from every Stobo Castle now stands, was, mouth, and was communicated like however, to be later one of the wildfire through the town.'

most marked sufferers from his The “Hielantmen," however, devotion to the rebels, saving his behaved, on the whole, very well. head, but losing his fine estate. The leader certainly imperatively

Some weeks after this, disquietdemanded payment of the cess, ing rumours were in Peebles to but asked from the householders the effect that the report of only such a contribution of pro- guns apparently firing from the visions as they could afford. The Castle in Edinburgh had been citizens were, however, forced to heard in the town.

But a mesbake and kirn, and the miller was senger James Nicholson - - who compelled to set bis mill agoing was in Edinburgh (1st December), on the Sunday, for the needs of says there was no ground for the the troops. The mere exaction of statement. Three to four thousand food was comparatively nothing, Highlanders are reported as being but the burghers were thus com- at Perth. This was probably the pelled to break the fourth com- contingent under Lord Strathallan, mandment !

who did not succeed in getting On leaving Peebles, this western south to join the Prince on his division went up the Tweed val- march to England. This failure

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R. Chambers, Rebellion, 1745, vol. i. p. 210.

led in great measure to the aban- for the Highlanders and their donment of the final stroke of the mode of warfare. He breakfasted enterprise when only ninety-four and spent the forenoon with Lady miles from London.

Kilmarnock, away from his troops. The Prince was now on his way Thus we find him partly taken by back from Derby, having managed surprise as Cope was, and there to evade the Duke of Cumberland was the repetition in great measin the retreat-except on the one ure of the sudden and shameful occasion when Lord George Mur- flight of the Dragoons as at Presray, turning on the pursuers, made ton. The Highlanders properly his bold back-stroke, and put a claimed the battle, though the party of the assailants to flight. momentary uncertainty of the The Prince was making for the issue, and the valiant stand of north to recruit his somewhat a portion of the Royal forces, shattered following. Under date prevented them following it up December 24, Mr Christie writes as they might have done. to Mr Burnett

The following letter is of interest “As the Provost of Peebles got

as from an eye-witness. It gives a letter last night (23d) from the

a clear and succinct account of the Prince's army acquainting him that sharp brief struggle, and helps us they were to be at Peebles to-morrow, to settle one or two points someand desired that the town might have what in doubt. It is dated Edinprovisions ready for them, you will burgh, 23d January, but bears no therefore excuse us if we don't wait upon you to dinner to-morrow, for signature. It was probably sent, we cannot leave our house."

in the first instance, to Mrs Bur

nett, Barns himself apparently The Highlanders do not seem, being from home : however, to have turned up on that date, as on December 25th [To Mrs Burnett of Barns.] Provost Alexander of Peebles

MADAM,—When your last came writes that

to hand I happened to be at Falkirk “The Highland army was yester

out of curiosity to see both armys and night at Lamington, and where they the engagement, if any should happen ; go is not well known. The foot were

and as the accounts in the newspapers yesternight at Linlithgow; the horse

are very lame and in some things false, rode back from Haddington to Edin

I shall give you a short account of the burgh. Carlisle is besieged by the action, as near the truth and to the Duke of Cumberland, and briskly de

best of my memory, in the great hurry fended by the garrison.”

and confusion most people, as well as

myself, were then in. The destination of the division I came from Borrowstoness upon of the forces at Lamington seems

the Friday morning to Falkirk, about to have been changed : there is no

8 o'clock, and saw the forces belongevidence of their having turned camped upon the north side of the

ing to the Government regularly enaside to Peebles.

town. About ten of the clock the

Highland army was seen upon the The battle of Falkirk was fought south side of the Torewood with on the 17th January 1746 (old coulors flying, and seemed as if they style, or 28th new). The various

had been marching backwards, but

about 2 hours after they were espyed features of it are well known. We have the negligence of Gen- ing taken a circuit round the high part

by glasses, upon the low ground, haveral Hawley, arising from his of the wood, and were then marching contempt, constantly expressed, on the straight post-road towards Fal

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battle upon

kirk. General Hawley had many gallant stand, and men on horseback informations of their approach, but were sent off to recall the flyers, but could not be prevailed upon to march to no purpose, for neither horse nor out of his camp till about 2 of the foot would return. The Highlanders, afternoon, when the last account who were advancing disorderly, seecame, as he was sitting at dinner in ing Husk's men draw up in order, the town, and when he rose in great immediately retreated to their first haste, saying, 'Come, let us disperse ground and formed themselves in this mob.' The alarm had been given order for second attack; but General in the camp some time before, and the Husk, not being reinforced, marched men were all under arms, and about down the hill, keeping a retreating half an hour after two they all marched fire all the while, which retarded the out of the camp, and were forming the Highlanders from advancing very line of battle fronting to the west. Ex- much, and saved the most part of pecting the Highland army to come the army from being cut to pieces, that way, but perceiving that the and gave time to carry off 3 of the Highlanders took their route more smallest of the train of artillery, a southerly, they, viz. the King's army, great deal of the baggage, and some faced about and marched in great of the tents from the camp; and haste up the hill to the south-west what they could not carry off they of Falkirk, and formed the line of set fire to, but the tents being wet

the summit fronting did not consume so suddenly but southwards. By this time the High- that the Highlanders, who were close landers were likewise forming upon upon them, extinguished a great deal another summit, within a good mus- of the tents and got some baggage. ket-shot; but neither of the armys The drivers, upon seeing the army were fully formed, when Gardener's fly down the hill, cut off the draughtand Hamilton's Dragoons began the horses from the artillery and covered battle by falling in amongst the waggons, and rode clear off with them, Highlanders. A tempest of wind which was the occasion of 7 of their and rain blowing incessantly at that best pieces being left behind, which instant, that no body could either see fell in the Highlanders' hands. or almost keep their feet, and a regi- “The flying army were some of ment of foot, said to be Poulteney's, them at Edinburgh that same night finding that the fire came from that before 8. But most of the Dragoons quarter, and not perceiving that the and foot stopt at Linlithgow, and Dragoons were betwixt them and the came next day to Edinburgh. I can Highlanders, kept a running fire did give you no particular accounts either more harm to the Dragoons than the of the killed, wounded, or prisoners, enemy. And in an instant of time

so that you may expect that afterwards the Horse broke and put their own with more certainty. left wing in great disorder. I was “Some of the foremost and heaviest unluckily situate behind the centre of the artillery were embogued (stuck of the army, and was almost trode in a bog or moss), and none of them down by the flying Dragoons and ever got up the bill to the field of horses wanting riders. I happened battle. to be standing

on foot with my horse “Since writing the above, I am in my hand at the time, not being informed that the Highlanders have able to keep my horse back with the about 700 prisoners, of which 200 storm ; and before I could retreat militia, and amongst them 5 minisabout a hundred paces, to be further ters, who, mistaking their trade, had from the shot which was whistling taken the sword of the flesh instead of about my ears, the Foot were broke, that of the spirite. There are likeand many of them at Falkirk before wise 30 of the Argileshire Campbels me, some with arms, some none. I prisoners; the others are all milistopt about a quarter of a mile to the tary. eastward of Falkirk opposite to the "The French Brigades keep their Callendar House, being informed that outguards at Linlithgow, and the milGeneral Husk bad rallied two regi- itary at Corstorphin, so that there is ments of foot and was making a but 10 miles betwixt them The main


- There


body of the Highlanders lye at Fal- This was the last success of the kirk, Bannockburn, and Stirling, and Prince. We know what rapidly are bombarding the Castle strenuously, followed,—the march to the north ; and flatter themselves that they shall

the futile siege of Stirling Castle soon carry it; after which they give out they are to attempt this place, by the way; the stand made on where the main body of the military the plain of Culloden, and the lye.

disaster of that dreadful day. constant desertions The Pretender pisode was the from them here to the Highlanders, last rising in arms in Britain that notwithstanding the strict discipline

was inspired by the ideas of abkept here, for they are constantly stract justice, the divine herediwhipping them for the loss of their arms and accoutrements, and this day tary right of kings, personal loythey hung up four for desertion in the alty to a head or chief, disinterGrassmercate, and it's said as many ested risk and sacrifice, in many more will be hanged to-morrow in the cases at least, of life and estate. same place, and 7 more in chains at The spirit of chivalry was its rethe Gallolee. You

transmit this

This was

deeming feature. to Barns, after you peruse it. This is wrote in great haste, which you will fronted with a strong democratic excuse.

belief in representative govern

ment as opposed to personal rule, General Hawley's one dominat- attachment to the Protestant sucing idea was that the rude High- cession, and the contentment landers were to be dispersed by which was gradually springing up dragoons. Hence the order to from a state of settled trade and them—some 700 or 800 in all- commerce. Hence, though the issue to charge a whole army of 8000 of the contest, as it turned out, foot drawn up in two lines. This was for the best, it did not deeply was a fatal blunder in tactics; but stir the national heart; and we it appears further, from the letter find the spirit of ballad and song, now printed, that the order was the power of the imaginative ideal, precipitately given, ere either of sympathy for its hero, as the inthe armies was fully formed, or heritor of “ the old Scottish glory,” the movements and position of the nearly wholly on the side of the Dragoons were properly known down-trodden cause. on their own side.


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