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The rupture having taken place, puted. These, and the insult of France added many new the fly-flap, were the causes of plaints to the immediate cause of war, which had been carried on quarrel. According to her, in since 1827, by a blockade of Al1824, contrary to the express giers, so inefficiently maintained as tenour of treaties, perquisitions not to prevent the state of hostihad been made in the French Con- lities from being extremely detrisular-house at Bona, under the mental to the French trade in the pretence of searching for contra- Mediterranean.

In the present band goods. Illegal permissions year a new expedition was fitted to sojourn and trade in that town, out, with the intention of conand on the coasts of the province verting the useless blockade into a of Constantine, had been granted bombardment, and a flotilla of gunto English and Mahometan mer boats and bomb-ketches, to be chants. In 1826, vessels, belong- used for that purpose, was daily ing to the subjects of the Holy exercised in the roads at Toulon. See, but bearing the white flag, This design, however, was abanand under the protection of France, doned. M. de Portalis, who was had been unjustly captured, and at this time at the head of the restitution refused. French pro- Foreign-office, perceived that the perty, seized on board of a Spanish continuance of the war was both vessel, had been confiscated. Thus, the cause of a ruinous expenditure, said France, had been violated and a subject of ridicule; the prothe two principles, which have ject of bombarding Algiers was constantly served as the basis of given up; and M. de la Bretonour transactions with the Regen- niere was charged with a mission cies of Africa-namely, that the more peaceful, as less subject to French flag should protect mer the caprices of chance. The adchandise, whatever it might be, miral set sail, not with five or six and that French merchandise bomb-ketches, but with arguments should be inviolable even under calculated to make upon the mind the enemy's flag Arbitrary of the Dey much more powerful visits and depredations had been impression than all the artillery of committed on board French ships; our marine. The new ministry and the sovereignty of France succeeded, and was occupied with over that portion of territory, more important matters than this which is comprised between the negotiation ; and about the end of river Seibus and Cape Roux, the year, M. Deval, whose woundand of which she had been in ed pride had insisted on exempossession since the middle of the plary satisfaction being demanded, fifteenth century, had been dis- died.


PORTUGAL.-Unsuccessful Conspiracies in Lisbon--Trial of the Con

spirators--Miguel alters the Sentence of Banishment into Death, and banishes those who had been acquitted-Sufferings of State Prisoners-Confiscations Attempt of Don Miguel against the Life of his Sister-Intrigues of the Queen, which lead to partial changes in the Ministry-Proceedings at Oporto against the Persons engaged in the Military enterprise of the preceding Autumn-Nine of them are executed— More bloodshed called for by the Priests, and a new Commission erected at Lisbon for the Trial of State Prisoners-Its Proceedings are interrupted by a change in the Ministry of Justice The Queen opposes herself to the more lenient conduct of the new Minister Continued Prosecutions and Punishments at Lisbon and Oporto-Sentence pronounced at Oporto, in their absence, against the Marquis Palmella, Count Villa Flor, and nineteen other General Officers-Forced issue of Paper MoneyNecessities of the Government--Count Villa Flor takes the Command in Terceira in the Name of the Queen-An Expedition sails from Lisbon to reduce Terceira— The Troops effect a landing, but are totally defeated by Villa Flor-Spain recognizes the title of Don Miguel, Brazil craves the armed interference of Britain, which is refused-A Portuguese Excpedition sails from Plymouth to reinforce the Garrison of Terceira, under the pretext that the Troops on board were to be curried to Brazil - The British Government prevents them from landing--- Don Pedro refuses to enter into any compromise with Miguel, and recals his Daughter from Europe. -SPAIN.--Executions at Barcelona-Partial Insurrections in Ca. taloniaCadiz is erected into a free Port-Detection of a Fraud practised by Spain in relation to a French Loan.-Italy.- Death of Pope Leo XII, and Election of Cardinal Castiglione Pius VIII.

I recorded the progress Yoy which

N our annals of last year, we ings of ordinary humanity, was

aggravated by the consciousness Don Miguel had succeeded in that the throne, which he had seized, usurping his brother's crown, and was not sccure. In Lisbon itself, the failure of the attempt which notwithstanding his triumph over had been made to maintain the the badly concerted, and worse constitution by force of arms. It executed, enterprise of the Liberals now remained for him to satisfy of Oporto, the public indignation the jealousy, which is the doom of daily threatened an explosion. all usurpers, by shedding blood. During the last weeks of 1898, A disposition the slave of violent numerous printed proclamations passion, and insensible to the works appeared, calling the Portuguese

to throw off his yoke, and put an individuals directly concerned. end to the system of indiscriminate Moreira had either miscalculated imprisonment and confiscation in the disposition of the military to which his satellites were revelling. whom he trusted, or the plot had The inhabitants assumed a me been betrayed ; for, on the night nacing attitude; many of the of the 9th of January, when in officers of the garrison were pre- the act of calling out the regiment pared to take part in the revolt. at the head of which he intended It was expected to break out on to make the attempt, he was arthe 19th of December ; and, in rested, along with the other officers the course of that night, various who had joined him, and the conbodies of citizens and military as- templated revolt was immediately sembled at different points. But stifled. no plan had been concerted ; no The government, now feeling communication even seemed to itself stronger, made use of this have taken place between them. occurrence to multiply arrests all Having remained on foot all night, over Lisbon. Every individual, each expecting that the others whom any creature of the governwould join them, they separated ment chose to dislike, or any prinext morning; having effected no- vate enemy thought fit to denounce thing except the putting of Don byan anonymous accusation,was iniMiguel upon his guard. That they mediately consigned to the dungeons were allowed to disperse in peace of the Limoeiro, or of St. Julian. was owing to the weakness of the A special commission was named government, which would not to try the actual conspirators. venture on further provocation, After having been detained for until it had armed itself with several weeks in solitary confine. greater power to punish. A large ment, they were brought before additional military force was it in the end of February. Some brought towards Lisbori, drawn of the prisoners were under age, chiefly from the bands which had and a counsel was assigned to been organized by the marquis de them. But they were allowed Chaves for establishing despotism, only four and twenty hours to and composed therefore of men on prepare their defence; although whom the despot could safely rely. the law provided, that no prisoner

This very measure hastened a should answer to a capital charge new attempt at insurrection, which in less than five days. Moreira, took place on the 9th of January. and four of his companions, were It was headed by a brigadier-ge- condemned to be transported to neral Moreira; but, like its prede- Africa for life ; two more were to cessor, it was premature and ill- suffer the same punishment for ten arranged. Several officers, and years. The rest were acquitted, some of the troops of the garrison, as persons against whom nothing had been brought into the enter was proved. Miguel was shocked prise; their object was to proclaim at the lenity of the sentence; it Donna Maria queen. None of the was not sufficiently high seasoned inhabitants seemed to have been with vengeance to gratify his pamade privy to it, nor any means late. He refused to ratify it, and to have been prepared for its suc- ordered a new sentence to be eess, beyond the small number of framed, by which the five pri

soners, condemned to transporta families. Many of them died in tion for life, were directed to be consequence of want and confinehanged; the two, who were to have ment; nor were suspicions want. been transported for ten years, were ing that poison had seconded the transported for life; and all those, jealousy of the usurper. No rank, who had been acquitted, were character, or age was respected. A transported for ten years. Some child, five years old, was kept in of the judges ventured to oppose solitary confinement five days, and this atrocious proceeding; but the subjected to all the tortures of the language of justice or humanity, prison, to extort evidence against of law or reason, was to Miguel its father and mother. A refugee an unknown tongue, and the sen- Spanish bishop, who had been a tence was carried into execution. member of the Cortes of 1812, Even the usual space of three days, and had since lived in peace and allowed by the law of Portugal, obscurity at Lisbon, was thrust to intervene between the passing into the dungeons of St. Julian, of a capital sentence, and its being and died in four days, in consecarried into effect, was shortened quence of the brutal maltreatment to one. Don Miguel's sentence heaped upon him by Telles Jordao, was signed on the 5th of March, a noted leader throughout the and next day Moreira and his four apostolic rebellion, to whom the companions were executed.

government of that fortress had In comparison with death, the been intrusted. Even the decencies condition of the numberless prie of Christian burial were refused to soners in the gaols and fortresses him, for that was an honour of was scarcely to be envied. Un- which “free-masons” were concondemned, though all of them, sidered unworthy, and the body and innocent, though most of was thrown into a hole in the them, were, they were delivered esplanade of the castle. All the over to the merciless authority of victuals carried in to the prisoners apostolic miscreants, who seemed were carefully examined, lest they to find no gratification but in the should be made the means of coninvention of new modes of inflict- veying communications, or impleing misery. Among the incarce- ments of escape. The governor's rated were many persons in afflu- son performed, one day, this digent circumstances, who charitably nified function, and amused himself contributed towards the support by minglingfilth with the prisoners' of the poorer prisoners, whom their food. They refused to partake of masters were willing to leave in it. Jordao thereupon gave orders, starvation. To deprive the latter that they should be questioned who of this alleviation of their mise was the ringleader of the resoluries, the government ordered the tion, and that all, who would not former to be removed from the declare his name, should be loaded dungeons of the city, and immured with irons, and sent to the subterin the fortresses of St. Julian, raneous dungeons. They were Belem, and Bugio. Without being called out one after the other, but brought to trial, the prisoners none of them would denounce his were cut off from all communi- comrade. As they were taken out cation, by speech, or writing, even of the prison to go to the inquiry, with the members of their own one of the officers of the garrison

abused them atrociously as they be set. Their uncontrolled paspassed, and when it was the turnsions could scarcely go beyond the of lieutenant-colonel Joao Chrisos- example set them by their master, tome, formerly of the 5th of Caça whose conduct, within the walls dores, the abusive officer called him of his own palace, was frantic. robber. The indignant colonel From the moment of his return, knocked him down. The general Miguel had hated his sister Donna instantly appeared, and desired one Maria, because she had been her of the soldiers to shoot the lieu brother's regent, and had been tenant-colonel.

This injunction faithful to his brother's constitution. was repeatedly disobeyed by all the Miguel learned, that a footman, soldiers, till Jordao himself, seizing formerly in the private service of the bayonet of one of their mus Donna Maria, had set out for kets, stabbed him several times, and England. He believed that this left him dead at his feet. Nor servant was the bearer of a corredid the apostolics forget avarice, in spondence between the princess and their love of vengeance; their the agents of Don Pedro, and that power was used for purposes of she had taken this opportunity of open spoliation, and shameless ex- saving from her brother her jewels tortion. While the persons of the and money. Don Miguel had been citizens were imprisoned with' in laying violent hands on all the discriminate fury, and abused with money and other valuables which reckless barbarity, their goods and he could collect, to supply his cofpossessions were sequestrated. The fers, in case he should be obliged officers, the magistrates, and subor. to abandon the kingdom. Furious dinate instruments employed in at the news of his sister's conduct, these transactions, were allowed to he rushed into her chamber with pay themselves, at their own dis a pistol in his hand, and demanded cretion, out of the sequestrated an account of the flight of her estates. They took possession, and servant. The princess stood tremplundered without restraint. If bling in silence; Miguel was about property was brought to sale, they, to strike her with a pistol, which or their agents, bought it at an was armed with a bayonet; danger under price ; that price was seldom


her courage ; she threw her. looked after, for every scoundrel self upon him, and overturned him. was very tolerant of every other. He sprung up, and again attacked Individuals were ruined, and the her. Count Camarido, her chamgovernment gained little. Colonel berlain, threw himself before the Raymundo, the governor of Cas- ruffian ; Miguel disabled him by caes, by way of making money, stabbing him in the arm, and ordered, of his own authority, that fired at the princess. The ball all shops should be closed at sunset, missed her, but killed a servant unless a special license were ob who was by her side. Other dotained from him to keep them mestics interfered, and her life longer open; and that license he was saved. How many crimes never refused, when it was properly did Miguel hold necessary to enpaid for. The kingdom was laid at title him to the honour of being the mercy of a set of men, to whose the most detestable of despots and vengeance, avarice, and brutality, usurpers? He had conspired against no bounds were even pretended to his father; he had usurped the Vol. LXXI.


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