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form the Siege of Akhalzik, but are compelled by the Russians to raise

it-The Pacha of Trebizond is driven from his Camp-Count Paske-

witsch succeeds in crossing the Mountains, to advance on Erzeroum,

and defeats the Turks in two separate Actions-Erzeroum surrenders

to the Russians--Return of the English and French Ambassadors to

Constantinople The Sultan refuses to accept their Mediation on the

terms proposed regarding Greece-State of the Capital as the Russians

advance Commissioners sent to Adrianople to treat-A suspension of

Hostilities takes place Peace is concluded between Russia and Turkey

Terms of the Treaty. Persia.--Massacre of the Russian Ambassador

and his Suite at Tehran.-GREECE.—Progress of the Greek Army in

Western Greece; they take Vonizza, Carvassara, Lepanto, Anatolico,

Missolonghi-Protocol of the three Powers regarding the Boundaries

and Settlement of Greece. They request from the Greek Governinent

a suspension of Hostilities, which is refused-Dissensions ainong the

Military-General Church resigns the Command of the Army-Meeting

and Proceedings of the National Assembly_Negotiations at Constanti-

nople for the Settlement of Greece The Sultan, in the Russian Treaty,

accedes to the Protocol of the Allies—Conferences at London to carry

the Protocol into effect—The three Powers resolve that the Sovereignty

reserved to Turkey, by the Protocol and the Russian Treaty, shall be

abolished — They fix the Limits of the new Greek State

[204

CHAPTER XII.

UNITED STATES.-Congress-Inaugural Address of the new President-

BRAZIL.-Extraordinary Meeting of the Legislative Assembly-Pro-

posed Reformation of the Bank-Ordinary Meeting of the Assembly-

Reductions in Expenditure-Finances-Attempted Impeachments of the

Ministers of Justice and of War for their Proceedings on occasion of an

Insurrection at Pernambuco:--Buenos Ayres.--General Lavalle, at

the head of his Troops, overturns the Government-Dorego, the Gover-

nor of Buenos Ayres, raises Troops in the Country to oppose him--

Lavalle marches against him, defeats him, takes him Prisoner, and puts

him to Death without Trial---Civil War-The Provinces of Santa Fe

and Cordova declare against Lavalle-He marches against thein-In his

absence the Federalists under Rosas approach Buenos Ayres-Lavalle

returns to defend the City-Buenos Ayres is besieged --Lavalle con-

cludes a 'Treaty with the Federalists-Reverses of the Federalists in

Cordovac The influence of Lavalle prevails in the Elections at Buenos

Ayres—The Federalists refuse to acknowledge them-A new Con-

vention is concluded, annulling the Elections, and naming a Senate to

conduct the Government.- COLOMBIA.- War with Peru-The Peruvians

blockade Guayaquil, and make an unsuccessful attack upon it-It

afterwards capitulates- The Peruvians are defeated at Tarqui, and

Preliminaries of Peace are signed The Peruvian Governor of Guaya-

quil refuses to give it up, and the Campaign is renewed-In consequence

of a Revolution in Peru, Guayaquil is given up to the Colombians, and

Hostilities are suspended, that a Peace may be negotiated-Bolivar con-

vokes an Assembly to meet in 1830–He forces by a Decree the Rights

of the Electors and the mode of Election-Santander's sentence of

Death is coinmuted into Banishment-Decree against secret Societies

-An Insurrection against Bolivar breaks out in Popayan, but is quelled

--Another Insurrection against his unlimited power breaks out in the

province of Antioquia—A Revolution in Bolivia in favour of the Co-

lombian party.P8RU.-A Revolution-The-President, Lanar, is sent

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The Catholic Question-Public Conduct of the leading Members of

the Cabinet as to that Measure-Their secret change of PolicyMeeting of Parliament --Speech from the Throne-- The Address.

E have recorded, in our pre- the second reading of sir Francis

ceding volume, the result Burdett's Bill in 1825; while the of the Parliamentary discussions of majority of forty-five, which had the Catholic Question during the rejected them in the House of session of 1828.* That result did Peers, was larger than the majorinot in itself contain any thing ties on the first and second of calculated to excite, among the these former occasions, and only Protestant part of the community, three votes smaller than that of apprehensions of an approaching 1825. The Catholic leaders themchange, and still less of the king's selves, indeed, pretended to know, ministers being ready to propose that government was inclined to and support such a change, as a lend a more willing ear to their cabinet measure. The majority of demands; but, on the one hand, six, which had carried the resolu- they did not act as if they believed tions in favour of the Catholics in their own statements, for they the House of Commons, was immediately proceeded to do their smaller than that which had car utmost to rouse Ireland into almost ried the third reading of Mr. open rebellion; and, on the other, Plunkett's Relief Bill in 1821, and there was nothing in the state of of Mr. Canning's bill in 1822, and the cabinet, nothing in the ex

pressed sentiments of its principal • Vide vol. Ixx, chap. 4.

members, nothing in the complexVOL. LXXI.

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ion of public feeling, that seemed the Catholic claims had just been to justify such a prospect. The repeating their settled convictions ministry continued to be, as for that for this, and other evils affectyears it had been, divided upon ing that part of the empire, conthe question ; but its head, the cession would afford no remedy. duke of Wellington, and Mr. The speech of Mr. Dawson Peel, the most influential of his Londonderry, on the 12th August, colleagues, were precisely the men was the first public symptom of who had distinguished themselves the influence of the Association by their opposition to the Catholic in terrifying its opponents; but demands, on every ground both of although the sentiments of that right and of expediency. During gentleman derived additional imthe discussions of 1828, both of portance from the relation in them, along with the lord chancel- which he stood to the Home lor, had expressed no inclination Secretary, and although they were, to desert the principles which they therefore, eagerly caught at by the had uniformly defended, and which friends of concession, as betokening had gained for the former two, on a change of opinion in more powerthis particular question, the unli- ful men, yet the vacillations of an mited confidence of that large Irish member, trembling for his majority of the community which seat, under the remembrance of the regarded concession to the Catho Clare election, could lead no one lics as dangerous and unconstitu- to anticipate sudden defection tional. On the 10th May, 1828, among those who had less reason Mr. Peel, in his place in parlia- to dread, and whose first duty it ment, had ranked himself among was to restrain, the Catholic demathose “ in whose minds no dispo- gogues. Though Mr. Peel's brothersition to change existed, but who in-law had announced, at a public rather found their original belief dinner, his change of opinion, Mr. strengthened by consideration.” Peel himself accepted, during the He had concluded a speech, in autumn, the public banquets of which he had proved the danger the gentry and manufacturers of and unreasonableness of these de- Lancashire, as the champion of mands in every point of view, the Protestant cause, without alwith stating, that he had now lowing a syllable to escape from gone over

" the grounds on which him, which could raise any suspihe had acted, and on which he had cion that he was more inclined to avowed his intention of still act surrender the Protestant constia ing.” During the autumn, in- tution than he had been three deed, the Catholic leaders had pro- months before. Above all, the duced alarm over Ireland, as they correspondence between the duke had often done before, and had of Wellington and Dr. Curtis, organized the disaffected into a which was given to the public in body ready for confusion and December, justified the most entire rebellion ; but the country had confidence on the part of the not yet learned that an aptitude country, that his grace, and his to yield to clamour and intimida-' grace's ministry, entertained no tion was one of the qualities of a purpose of yielding. The duke wise and energetic government; had written, in express words, that and the long-tried opponents of he “saw no prospect of a settle

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