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In discussing the training of the will it is of greatest importance to know from the outset what is meant by the term will. It must not be confused with wilfulness or contrariness. Almost every day we hear it said of some one who "sets his head" and can not be changed that he has a strong will. When children persist in lines of conduct regardless of consequences it is said that they have strong wills. In all such cases there is a muddling or confusion of terms. At least the terms are not clearly defined. In most such cases as these given the individual, instead of having strong will, is void of will. We should cease complimenting the contrary, stubborn man by insinuating that he is a man of strong will, when, in fact, he posssesses few of the elements of genuine will. In every act of will, properly speaking, there must be present at least these elements: (1) It must be seen that, all things considered, a certain line of action is desirable-it is best, or most expedient, or most profitable. (2) There must be an uncoerced choice of this line of action. (3) The individual must exert the effort necessary for the accomplishment of the end. chosen. Will carries with it the thought of making things come to pass. The young man who sits around wishing that he had a college education has no will.

It is the young man who sees that such an education is desirable, that chooses to make the sacrifices necessary to secure it and then goes to work providing ways and means whereby it can be accomplished. Half of the vague, general wishes of the world are not expressions of will, but are indications of its absence.

Will training, then, consists in bringing

to bear upon neople all those influences which will permanently endow them with the ability or disposition or habit of facing situations, discerning the desirable course, choosing it, and if possible accomplishing it. It can be seen, of course, that will carries with it the machinery for realizing the end chosen. A man without legs can not will to run a footrace. A man without arms can not will to pitch a game of ball. The motor element is always present in will. This suggests what is true, namely, that the tap root of will is in our physical lives. Many people fail to accomplish desirable ends for the reason that they literally do not have the nerve to do it; others do not have the blood; others do not have the glands, etc. The body should be kept in good trim, for it is the instrument through which many of our choices are realized. We can not be effective without good bodies. We can not be moral in the highest sense if we fail to keep our bodies in first-class repair. The person who fails to do good because his body is sick, when with care his body would have been well, is immoral.

The last and one of the most important steps in the whole complex process of character building is in essence an act of will, taking will in this sense of making things come to pass, of bringing something about, of acting effectively. Not only our chief but our only ground for judging character is a knowledge of one's reactions under certain conditions. When I am hungry and penniless in the presence of goods that might be stolen undetected is the time to determine if I am a thief. If the goods are untouched it is reasonably certain that I am no thief. Because

I do not steal the church draperies in the midst of a revival when I am well clothed, well fed and have my pocket filled with money is no very strong indication that I would not steal. The point I am trying just now to bring out and emphasize is that our only way of getting at a person's character is by knowing how he will behave under certain conditions, that one's will determines largely his behavior and that one's will training is one of the most important factors in his will capital. We see here why it is that one's profession of conduct and his actual life often do not coincide. The former is set forth in sober moments, when conditions are favorable to serious thoughts, when one comes face to face with himself. The latter is one's actual performance under all the varying conditions of life; and it is the latter, rather than the former, that determines what one's character is and what it will be, although the former plays a by no means insignificant role.

In this particular phase of child training, in school or out of it, at least four things should be borne in mind. (1) The child should be allowed, yes, even required, to pass judgment upon certain lines of conduct. History and literature. offer an excellent opportunity here. (2) He should make choice of a line of action as determined by his judgment. By this I do not mean that the philosophy of history and literature should be taught young children. On the contrary, I think they should not be. But any child old enough to be in school can pass upon the conduct of Arnold on the one hand and Marion on the other. (3) It is the duty of every parent and teacher to so train the child that his mental and physical machinery, so to speak, will be kept in good repair, and be able to effectually re-enforce its judgments and choices. (4) Every child should be required to perform tasks that offer an opportunity for development in all of these ways. Every subject in the school and every task about the home offer this chance. It can be illustrated well in manual tarining. The child has a certain piece of work assigned. Out of many possible ways of getting at it, one seems most desirable; he chooses this

plan, and goes to work-an excellent opportunity for will and moral trainingand it must be said an excellent opportun ity for will and moral demoralization. If the child is expected to select a plan and then hold to it till the task is completed, good results in training are sure to follow, but if the child is permitted to dilly dally, to try this thing a while and then that thing, never completing anything, nothing but moral disaster should be expected. Here we have a criterion for all of the assignments in the school room. The teacher should be reasonably sure that all of the assignments are within the capabilities of the children. Nothing should be required of the child that it can not do within the prescribed time and from its standpoint do it well. Nothing is more demoralizing than a great, long, indefinite assignment, with the direction, "Let each one do as much of this as he can." All assignments should be clear-cut and definite, and in every case the results of the child's work should be the same. It is better in every way. More objective work will be done and it will lead to moral strength rather than moral degradation. For the common man and the child, it is not true that "there is more in the running than winning the race.' Neither McKinley nor Bryan believes it; the owners of Star Pointer and Joe Patchen never believed it; the athletes and their trainers and thousands of admiring supporters do not believe it. The farmer who goes about his daily tasks early and late, year in and year out, does not believe it. The child in his tasks at home and at school can not believe it; and we should accord him the same fighting chance as we do adults by making the conditions such that he can win the race; so that he will turn up some place with something, and not expect him to work for exercise alone (although every one must see that this in itself is worth while). The only hope for will training is to put the child to work at something which will require an exercise of the will. In a word; nothing is so beneficial to the child from the standpoint of will training and character building, to say nothing of health, escape from vice, etc., as old fashioned, honest work

adapted to the child's years and strength. We say that tramps have no character, that they have no will power, etc. Within the last three or four years a friend of mine has employed from time to time more than one hundred tramps to work about the house, barn and garden. Out of this more than one hundred men, not one has been found who was fit for anything. They don't know how to chop wood, or hoe, or mow, or spade, or carpenter. It is also true that as a rule they do not have a disposition to do so, but care was exercised to find out their methods of doing things, and every one showed incapacity from lack of training. I think it is not claiming too much to say that lack of training in childhood in doing things just right has affected the dispositions of these men as much as it has their capabilities.

In the Reform School at Elmira, New York, noted for excellent work and beneficial results, the theory is to overcome evil by doing good. The boys are not. moralized to death. When a boy enters this institution his capabilities are ascertained. Every morning a definite task within his power is assigned and dinner never comes until that piece of work is done to the best of his ability; in the afternoon the same thing is repeated. It is found with these boys, as with the tramps mentioned above, that as a rule they can do nothing well. They have been allowed

to work when they pleased, as they pleased. It is found that a reasonable amount of systematic work is the thing they need above all things else. A few years of such work result in two things which save the boy. In the first place, he leaves the institution not helpless, but able to do well. In the second place, he has developed a disposition for this kind of thing, and he prefers to do it. Actual statistics support both of these statements. The ultimate problem in training is the problem of will training, and there seems to be but one way to secure it, and that is by consistent, systematic work. This is becoming a serious problem, especially in large cities. If the home can not do so, the school or community must offer opportunities for such work to every child. The problem has its serious side in the country as well, for although the opportunities for work are practically unlimited, many parents know nothing about doing things well, and the children. come along in that happy, go easy, careless way which is demoralizing in the extreme. What have I said about will training? Not much, to be sure, but about all that can be said. It is this: A healthy mind in a healthy body and opportunities and encouragement from childhood up; to apply both consistently to tasks that are worth while.



Weather proverbs more commonly refer to the phenomena that precede and attend cyclonic storms. These consist mainly of changes in temperature, and in atmospheric pressure; of changes in the form and motions of clouds, in the velocity and direction of winds, changes in the electrical conditions of the air, and in the quantity of water vapor it contains. Weather proverbs pertain to these changes and to their effects upon plants, animals and inanimate things. An optically clear blue sky often precedes a rain storm. "When the sky is very full of stars, expect rain."

"If the stars appear large and clear. expect rain or wind." "The further the sight, the nearer the rain." "An unreasonably fine day in spring is often called a weather breeder." Increasing quantities of water vapor lessen atmospheric pressure and enable the air to transmit sound more freely. "Much sound in the air is a sign of rain." "A good hearing day is a sign of wet." "When the distant train sounds clear, be sure that rain is near." The gathering moisture often manifests itself in halos, mock suns and bright-colored skies. "The moon with a

circle brings water in her beak." "When round the moon there is a trough, the weather will be cold and rough." "A bright circle around the sun indicates a storm and cooler weather." "Halos and mock suns predict a storm at no great distance."

At the weather station in London during the six years ending June, 1882, 155 solar and sixty-one lunar halos were observed. With the solar halos in eightyone cases rain fell the same day, in thirtyone it fell the second day, in ten it fell the third day, and in only twenty-six cases was there no rain in the immediate locality.

With the lunar halos rain followed in fifty-three cases. "A red sun has water in his eye." "Evening red and morning gray will set the traveler on his way." "Evening gray and morning red will bring down rain upon his head." "Light, delicate, quiet tints or colors with soft, undefined forms of clouds, indicate and accompany fair weather; but unusual or gaudy hues, with hard, definitely outlined clouds, foretell rain.' "Red clouds at sunrise indicate a storm." "If there be red clouds in the west at sunset it will be fair." Color seems a trustworthy prognostic, but the apparent discrepancies are not easily explained.

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Clouds are important features. weather phenomena, and frequently indicate approaching rain. Clouds present a great variety of forms, some of which are common and characteristic. The cumulus or heaped cloud is white, massive in structure, and generally characteristic of fair weather. Cumulus clouds sometimes merge into cumulo-stratus, and these into the nimbus, or rain clouds of thunder storms. They are frequently called thunderheads, and often indicate rain. "If a "If a fair day with cumulus clouds, expect rain. before night." "A cloud with rounded top and flattened base (cumulo-stratus) carries rainfall on its face." The cumulus cloud follows the ordinary cyclonic storm and precedes the local thunder storm.

Cirrus clouds are of a delicate, fibrous structure, appearing in a great variety of forms, usually at high altitudes. Some

are known as mares tails, cats' tails, twisted tufts, plumage clouds, etc. In general they indicate approaching storms. Cirrus clouds are frequently continuous westward with thin, sheet-like clouds called cirro-stratus, and these again with the rain clouds of a cyclonic area. Cirrus clouds are among the most constant and trustworthy indications of approaching storms, sometimes appearing before the barometer has given notice of diminishing pressure. "When cirri threads are brushed back from a southerly direction, expect rain and wind." "When cirri merge into cirro-stratus, and when cumulus increase toward evening and become lower clouds, expect wet weather." "When cirro-cumuli appear in winter, expect warm and wet weather." Cirro-cumulus, or fleecy clouds, making a mottled or mackerel sky, indicate stormy weather.

"Mackerel scales and mares' tails make lofty ships carry low sails." "Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, never long wet, never long dry." "If, in winter, the clouds appear fleecy, with a very blue sky, expect cold rain or snow."

"If the woolly fleeces strew the heavenly way, be sure no rain disturbs the summer day." "Narrow, horizontal red clouds after sunset in the west indicate rain before thirty-six hours." "If clouds float at different heights and rates, but generally in opposite directions, expect heavy rains." "Clouds floating low enough to cast shadows on the ground are usually followed by rain." From the great majority of the 200 weather bureau stations cirrus, cirro-stratus or cirro-cumulus clouds are mentioned as indicating approaching storms.

"When the fog goes up the mountain you may go hunting, it will be fair; when it comes down the mountain, you may go fishing, it will rain." "When the fog falls, fair weather follows; when it rises, rain follows." "When the fog goes up the hill, the rain comes down by the mill." These and many others are contradictory. "If it rains before seven, it will clear before eleven.” As the sun mounts toward the meridian it often dissipates fogs, mists and rain clouds. "Rainbow in the morning, shepherds take warning:" it is liable

to rain. "Rainbow at night, shepherds' delight," as it indicates fair weather. "If there be sheet lightning with a clear sky on spring, summer or autumn everings, expect heavy rain." "When it thunders in the morning, it will rain before night." "Thunder in the evening indicates rain." When the sky is clear, radiation is free and objects near the earth may become so cold that dew or frost is deposited upon them. But when it is cloudy, or there is much vapor in the air, radiation is hindered and the air may not become cool enough for the deposition of dew or frost. "A heavy dew indicates fair weather." "Clouds and no dew foretell rain." "Moonlight nights have the hardest frosts." "A black or killing frost indicates dry, cold weather." While dew and frost seem to foretell clear weather, the hoar or white frost indicates rain. "If there is an abundance of hoar frost, expect rain." Three white frosts and then a storm. "A heavy white frost in winter is followed by a thaw." The hoar frost is deposited from very moist air, but the conditions are difficult to explain.

Changes in atmospheric pressure generally go before changes in the weather. These changes of pressure affect living things in various ways, so that the peculiar behavior of some of the different forms of animal life becomes an indication of weather changes.

"When the donkey blows his horn, 'tis time to house your hay and corn." "When cats purr and sneeze,

When dogs eat grass,

When the foxes bark at night,

When horses and mules are restless, When cattle low and gaze at the sky, Expect a change of weather either rain or


"If swine be restless and grunt loudly, if they squeal and jerk up their ears, there will be much wind." "Birds and fowls oiling feathers indicate rain." "Buzzards, geese, kites and other birds flying high indicate fair weather; flying low, foretell bad weather." "Everything is lovely and the goose hangs high," is another way of saying that geese flying high indicate fair weather. "Swallows skimming along the ground indicate rain.' "When the peacock loudly bawls, soon we'll have both

rain and squalls.” "When fish bite readily and swim near the surface, rain may be expected." "Fishes in general, both in salt and fresh waters, are observed to sport more and bite more eagerly against rain than at any other time." "Ants are very busy, gnats bite eagerly, crickets are lively, spiders come out of their nests, and flies gather in houses just before rain." Frogs croak more noisily and come abroad in the evening in larger numbers before. rain.

"The louder the frogs, the more's the rain." Changes in pressure also affect human beings. "When old sores, rheumatic joints and neuralgic nerves are more painful than usual, stormy weather may be expected." "A ringing in the ears at night foretells a change wind." "A weak stomach is liable to uneasy sensations." "When corns ache rain follows." It feels like rain. There sometimes comes a feeling that pervades every fiber of the being, which we can not describe nor explain, but which we have learned to associate with rain. While change of pressure may be the main cause in the cases mentioned, the increased moisture is in many cases an associate cause. In the following, moisture seems the main cause. "Human hair in some cases curls and kinks at the approach of a storm, and restraightens after the storm." "The flower of the chickweed, daisy, dandelion and of many other plants closes before rain." "The cottonwood, quaking aspen, silver maple and others often turn up their leaves before rain." The storm center passes, the winds become westerly, the storm clouds break up, and after a few clearing showers blue skies and cumulus clouds appear.

"When the wind is in the west, the weather is at its best." "Wind in the east, neither good for man nor beast." "When ye see the south wind blow, ye say there will be heat, and it cometh to pass." Luke 12:55. "The north wind doth blow, and we shall have cold and perhaps snow." In general the proverbs given and many others foretell rain or stormy weather. They give us some faint idea of the immense variety of phenomena that attend ordinary changes of the weather.

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