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In person he had all the characteristics of a ruler. The Duke of Wellington was his ideal in war and statesmanship.

The greatest stain on the record of Nicholas was his heartless treatment of Poland. He established therein a military reign of terror. Two hundred eighty-six of the Polish nobles were condemned to death and their estates confiscated to Orthodox Russian generals. The government suppressed the University of Warsaw and closed most of the educational institutions. It closed all associations, even reading clubs. It forbade all public meetings except private evening entertainments, and permitted those only on condition that members of the police should be invited. It subjected books and music to a rigid censorship. No foreign books or periodicals were admitted into the empire.

Nicholas made a famous speech at Warsaw in 1835, in which he said: "If you persist in holding to your dreams of separate nationality, independent Poland, and all these fancies, you will involve yourselves in great misfortunes. I have built a citadel, and I declare to you that at the least sign of uprising I will batter down your city."

Nicholas not only abhorred constitutions and liberal forms of government, but he despised European life. Being a confirmed orthodox, he felt it a sacred duty to shut out from "Holy Russia" the ideas of the heretical west. He attempted to undo the work of Peter the Great. He made it difficult for any foreigner to enter Russian domain. He forbade any of his subjects to leave the empire without his personal pe 'mission, which he rarely granted. Newspapers were forbidden to discuss official acts or individuals to concern themselves with politics.

In 1848, at St. Petersburg, a number of young men, officers, employes and professors, had adopted the habit of meeting in the evenings to read and discuss European publications. The police arrested thirty-two of them; they were condemned to death, pardoned just before execution and their sentence commuted to hard labor for life.

The Czar spent most of his time in reviewing his troops, being constantly in military uniform. He believed his army the best in the world, but the Crimean war proved

that he was woefully mistaken. The failures and disappointments of this war finally broke his heart and the great autocrat died with the consciousness of a great defeat.

The "Nicholas system" was repugnant to the son, Alexander II; he therefore revived the imitation of the civilized nations of Europe. Without wishing to bind himself by a constitution, he announced his intention of making needed reforms, and appealed to the nobles for assistance. He recalled many of the Siberian exiles, modified the censorship, permitted travel, including trips to other countries, and prepared a scheme for the emancipating of the serfs. Without changing his ministers or the political institutions of his empire, he allowed his subjects an amount of freedom beyond precedent.

The emancipating of the serfs has transformed Russian society. By giving the masses equal liberty and the management of communal affairs, it has almost converted Russia into a modern state. There are two institutions in the empire that no Czar will ever dare to destroy-the church and the village commune.

The great liberality of Alexander II led his people to expect that he would grant them a constitution, but this he refused to do. He promptly arrested a few of the nodo. bles who were so bold as to issue a call for national delegates to meet and discuss measures looking toward a limited monarchy. He gave the people perfect treedom in the administration of local affairs, in all matters connected with the economic needs of the people. Public schools were organized after the plans in Europe and the army was or ganized after the Prussian model.

In 1862, a committee of revolution having threatened the imperial family, together with numerous other incendiary crimes, which aroused St. Petersburg, the Czar began from that time his policy of reaction. His drift toward despotism was more rapid than his policy of progression.

The old methods of secret trials, transportation and espionage were again brought into requisition and the pendulum swung rapidly toward the past.

Hardly any of the many great reforms that ushered in his auspicious reign escaped mutilation. All have been disfigured or

emasculated till they are nothing but a painful parody on the liberal spirit that inspired them.

Both Alexander III, who came to the throne after his father's assassination in 1881, and the present ruler, Nicholas II, his son, who became Czar in 1894, are confirmed adherents of the "Nicholas System." Both antagonized the introduction of western ideas.

Freedom of speech, censorship of the press, introduction of scientific books and history, are all forbidden with the same vigor 3 in the palmy days of Nicholas I. Eut the pɛople have tasted of liberal ideas, and the deadliest foe that such a government as Russia can have is an educated working class. Such an element is gradually growing up. When it reaches maturity and begins to realize its power, it will, unless all human experience goes for nothing, inoculate the very atmosphere with what Russians would call revolutionism, with what we know under the name of liberty. It may not be in our day. But that ultimately Russia will duplicate all western experience, pass through the same struggles and the 、 same broad phases of social and political growth, appears inevitable.

Chapters 23, 24 and 25 of Professor Judson's text explains so well the condition of Turkey, and the much discussed eastern question that we hesitate to add anything with a view of further clarifying the subject under consideration. It is well known that the orthodox Greek Catholic of Russia looks upon the city of Constantinople in very much the same manner as the Roman Catholic views the city of Rome. Thus Russia is irresistibly drawn toward the Turkish capital. The Russian peasant looks upon it as his Mecca. Also for political reasons the possession of the city of Constantinople insures an exit to the Mediterranean. To de bouch on the Persian Gulf is the key to Russian policy in Asia Minor.

England, by many, is assumed to be the guardian of Turkey because of jealousy of Russia on account of the former's interest in the Suez Canal, Egypt and the far east. Some excellent authorities on the eastern question now say unqualifiedly that England will never fight to keep Russia out of Constantinople, but the real danger will come

from Germany. It is said that the Teuton is rapidly transforming the city of mosqu ́s into a German colony and that the process is viewed at St. Petersburg with unqualified disfavor.

The struggle in the Balkans seems to us to be Teuton versus Slav. Russia and England have transferred their quarrel to points farther east.

The fear of war, which has become much more horrible than in former times, acts as a check on hostile feelings. This is as it should be, but all Christian men agree that some way should be found to expel the hated Turk from European soil. From our knowledge of him that will never be accomplished with diplomacy. Nothing short of exte mination will bring safety to the Armenians and prepare the way for redeeming the richest part of Europe from the hand of the despoiling Turk.



One of the most important movements in the evolution of the modern school is the attempt to develop in the children a sense of artistic appreciation by means of beautiful surroundings. The artistic decoration of the schoolroom has for its purpose not merely the enjoyment and cheer of the pupils, but, in a larger sense, the training of the esthetic emotions, the development of a love for the beautiful, and the growth of the power to appreciate and appropriate the beautiful in nature and art. If the world of beauty is to be an open book to our children, the foundation principles of this power of artistic appreciation must be laid in the school in the most impressionable years of the child life.

The new education stands primarily for the training and development of the whole man. The school no longer exists alone fo the training of the intellect, but rather for the harmonious development of body, intellect, will and sensibilities. The child at graduation must not only be able to think and work, but also to enter into and enjoy the social, ethical and esthetic world of which he becomes a part.

The problem of esthetic education must be recognized as a part of the problem of education as a whole. True education is a unitary process. We are wrong when we think of physical education, ntellectual education, moral education, esthetic education as distinct processes. Any scheme of education is defective if either of these elements be omitted. It is the vital work of the school to lay hold of the complexity of human experience as exhibited in man's art, his science, his literature, his religious belief, his institutional life; to simplify and organize this, and then bring it into closest touch with the life of every child. far as the child partakes and enters into this best life of the race in all its phases he will be fitted to enter into a joyous, useful life in society. The world's storehouse of art may be open to every child in the common schools if some phase of real art is made a more or less permanent feature of the daily environment of the school.

In so

The development of the esthetic faculty for a true love and appreciation of the beautiful owes its educational importance in part to the fact that by refining the feelings, detaching them from objects of personal concern, and connecting them with objects of truth and beauty the child's source of happiness is greatly widened and elevated, and, further, the education of the esthetic sense comes into closest contact with moral training. The cultivation of a real appreciation of the beautiful in music, poetry, art, sculpture, painting, architecture, and nature will call forth the highest productive impulses of the child and lead to a dislike for things low, ugly and sinful.

We hold that a love for the beautiful is, perhaps, second only to religion as a protection against the grosser forms of self-indulgence, and that it can best be kindled at an age when the mind is specially susceptible to the influence of surroundings.

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The development of artistic taste in children depends largely upon external conditions. The child takes its cue as to what is beautiful from what it sees about it and hears others approve. In seeking to develop this faculty we must remember that it is the early impressions of childhood which produce the most lasting effect. During the impressionable years of early life the foun3-E. J.

dations of a love of beauty in nature and art should be laid by "steeping the young mind" in the impressions of that which is true and refining in art. It is only by this early companionship with the beautiful that the most valuable esthetic associations can be built up.

There are few of our pupils who ever have a chance to see beautiful rooms and real art at home, hence there is great importance of surrounding the child during the hours he is in school by that which is beautiful. The school should not only be beautiful in architectural design and in the construction and arrangement of the room, but should be the art center of the community. Here should be collected many reproductions of the world's masterpieces in painting, architecture and sculpture. Through no other means can the taste of the children be cultivated so well as by bringing into the school good reproductions of works of art. Quietly and unobtrusively they press their claim for recognition upon the life of the children. Like gems of literature, they are stored in the memory and become a directing influence in the future life of the child.

No scheme for decoration of the school should ever be undertaken apart from the education of the child. Pictures to be used and the very color of the walls should be determined after careful consideration of the direct influence and effect upon him. Well chosen hues of wall and woodwork and a few good pictures will light and warm the classroom and cheer the pupils, and at the same time develop in the minds of all a true taste and appreciation of the beautiful, which will go through the whole life as an uplifting influence. Through this influence the foundation may be laid for gentle tasks and a thoughtful, reasoning appreciation. The future will furnish evidence of the value of this work when the community as a whole will show a keener appreciation of real artistic worth and excellence. Mr. Turner says: "I believe that the future art of this country depends not so much upon the patronage and appreciation of the comparatively few who have means and leisure as upon the cultivation of good taste among the great mass of the people, made possible through a familiarity with beautiful and artistic things."

The color schemes adopted for the room is of first importance in all the plans fo school decoration, not only becaure it so vtally affects the cheer and beauty of the room, but because of its influence in the developing taste of the children. The author of our text has fully treated this subject, but we will add a quotation from Miss Stella Skinner's chapter on "Pictures in the School." She says: "No invariable rules

can be laid down concerning color schemes for a schoolroom, but some suggestions may be of value. The color note of a room is usually determined by its woodwork, especially as the use of natural woods is superseding that of painted wood. No one color or tone is suited to an entire building, wherc light comes by turns from v..rious points of the compass. With natural pine or oak woodwork, a creamy tone on the wall surface (technically, a tint of brown or orange gray) is pleasant for a bleak northern room whica seldom has a ray of direct sunshine, and to some extent compensates the children for their loss of the sun. On the south side, where the sunlight comes streaming in, a very warm tone on the walls might seem disagreeable; here a cool, gray-green tint is grateful. We must remember, however, that too cool a tone, i. e., one containing too great a proportion of blue or yellow would by contrast intensify the warmth of the woodwork.

"It is a matter of relationships; all should be considered together, woodwork, blackboard (which, let us hope, is not black at all, but the soft gray of natural slate or a dark green-gray mixture), wall surface and window shades. The latter should be selected with reference to their color at the window, when light shines through them, as well as taking into account their local color when unaffected by light.

"In an old-fashioned building, where the woodwork is nearly black with age, a warm, softly pinkish tint on the walls is cheerful, and enlivens the deep tones of the wood. Where woodwork is painted it is well to choose the same color for both wood and wall-a warm or cold gray, according to the lighting of the room, the woodwork being enough deeper in tone to give a pleasant accent, while window shades, carrying the same color if possible. add the necessary depth of color."

In the selection of pictures for the schoolroom great care should be exercised. Amon? the considerations influencing our choice, first and foremost is that of a t culture. Pictures should not be chosen merely to beautify the room, nor because of the beauty of the picture itself. Their purpose is broader, larger, and more dignified than this. The school picture should bring to the children some example of the world's great masterpieces of art-something that has lived in the heart of the race, something that is in itself a poem, a true idealism coming from the mind and heart of a master artist. Such pictures are the legitimate heritage of our boys and girls.

The indiscriminate use of cheap mottoes, clippings from illustrated papers, advertising cards, posters, and other common pictures for schoolroom decoration is never to be commended. Neat bare walls are to be preferred.

Good reproductions of some of the world's masterpieces in art are the most satisfactory of all pictures for the school. A picture that is good enough to hang before little children must not only have a real art value. but must be worth knowing intimately, worth loving, worth living with.

There are, of course, many pictures of value which relate to the details of school work, to nature, to literature, to history and to geography. These have a very impo tant place in the school, but if they do not possess a real art value, they had better form a part of a portfolio collection to be placed before the school when needed.

One great picture is worth more to the school than a dozen of only passing merit. The schoolroom that possesses one good copy of a noted Madonna, a large photograph of one of the world's noted cathedrals, and a good reproduction from Millet or Rosa Bcnheur, has laid the foundation for a splendid course in art instruction.

Speaking of the value and influence on children of the Madonnas, Miss Skinner, quoted above, has said: "To the little children who come, sensitive and shy, from the home circle into the large community of the school, what more gracious welcome could await them than the gentle, loving presence of one of the Madonnas, assuring them as it does of love and care and sympathy in

the school home, not less than in the family? For surely no teacher under this benign influence can be impatient and harsh witn little ones who trust her so confidingly. * * * And what of the street urchin whose only idea of home is a place for eating and sleeping, and with whom the thought of 'mother' is often associated with harsh tones and impatient blows? What can the picture of the Madonna mean to him? May it not teach him, after all, that the world is full of love; that he, himself, neglected though he be, is entitled to a share of it? Fortunate, indeed, will he be if in his own teacher he finds the realization of this motherly ideal.

"After these young children have lived with the Madonna picture for some weeks or months, and it has had time to become a part of their very life, they like to talk about it, and to tell the story they find in it, which is always, 'The mother loves the baby.' Then they want to tell about the baby at home, and of the love that surrounds it. Skillful questioning will lead them to look into the picture again and again for deeper meanings. * * The children, too, will have many questions to ask, questions too deep and serious, many times, to be answered, for who has the skill to tell the Christ story to a little child? The Madonna idea embodies for us all much more than one mother and one child. It stands as the type of motherhood, and of the love which su rounds all childhood. 'Each new child is a new Messiah,' a message and a hope to world-weary men, and the very highest purpose of all education is to nourish the inborn, divine spirit, not to quench it."

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Photographs of the world's most noted buildings and mementoes are of great educational value, especially in this country, where we have so few examples of real architecture. They serve to keep alive the best traditions of the race and to inculcate a spirit of reverence so badly needed. The architecture of all people and ages is a rich inheritance, and the children have a right to share it. How can we help them to know and love these beautiful art creations into which the very lives of all generations have been builded except through good pictures?

Picture study is an essential part of a public school course in drawing and art study,

where pupils are preparing to receive from the world and to give to the world. All earnest, honest observation of good pictures brings to these students of drawing larger conceptions of the possibilities of art, new insight into strong and beautiful ways of working, and a deepened incentive to personal effort. The highest purpose of picture study in the school is many sided: it brings helps to open the child's eyes to the beauty of the world around him; it helps to bring him into inspiring communion with the master minds of all ages, and it helps to bring out the best of his own creative powers.

PROGRAM OF STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, DECEMBER 26-28, 1901. Officers.-H. B. Brown, Valparaiso, President; Lawrence McTurnan, Anderson, Chairman Executive Committee; W. P. Hart, Covington, Permanent Secretary and Treasurer (this office became vacant by the removal from the State of Jas. R. Hart, former Permanent Secretary; this vacancy will need to be filled by the general association at the opening session); Leva Foster, Edinburg, Recording Secretary.

Vice-Presidents.-Robert Spear, J. M. Tey, H. F. Gallimore, J. W. Riddle, D. M. Geeting, S. L. Heeter, Wm. Clem.

Executive Committee. Lawrence McTurnan, Chairman, Anderson; Jas. F. Organ, Bloomington; T. H. Meek, Lawrenceburg; J. E. Orr, Redkey; T. A. Mott, Richmond; T. S. Thornburg, Monticello; Geo. H. Tapy, Columbia City; Wm. P. Hart, ex-officio, Covington.

Thursday, December 26, 8:00 P. M. Invocation.-The Rev. H. C. Meserve, Pastor Plymouth Church.

Music.-Violin solo, Prof. Fred Noble. Address.-Retiring President, Supt. R. I. Hamilton, Huntington.

Inaugural address.-"The Responsibilities of the Educator," President H. B. Brown, Valparaiso. Music.-Vocal solo, Miss Effie C. Hessin. Business.-Appointment of committees and miscellaneous business.

Friday, December 27, 8:30 A. M. Invocation.-The Rev. Joshua Stansfield, Iastor Meridian Street M. E. Church.

Music.-Piano solo, Miss Olive Kilgore. Symposium.-"What Shall be Indiana's Next Steps in Education?" (a) As to “Ideals and Processes," Prof. Howard Sandison, 20 minutes; (b) As to "Reforms," Prof. Amos W. Butler, 20 minutes; (c) As to "School Economy," Supt. F. L. Jones, 20 minutes; (d) As to "Supervision," Supt. Chas. A. Van Matre, 20 minutes; (e) As to "Manual Training," Supt. R. I. Hamilton, 20 minutes; (f) As to "The Training of Teachers," Supt. D. M. Geeting, 20 minutes.

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