Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical: As Applied and Relating to the Arts and Manufactures, Band 1

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Seite 236 - A malt liquor of any kind, or a spirituous liquor made from any farinaceous grain, but generally from barley, which is first malted and ground, and its fermentable substance extracted by hot water. This extract or infusion is evaporated by boiling in caldrons, and hops, or some other plant of an agreeable bitterness, added. The liquor is then allowed to ferment in vats.
Seite 70 - A quantity of brewers' wort is next to be prepared in the usual manner, by boiling with hops, and when cooled to 90° or 100°, the decomposed dough before described, after being thoroughly mixed with a little tepid water, is added to it, and the temperature kept up by placing the vessel in a warm situation. After the lapse of a few hours, active fermentation commences, abundance of carbonic acid, having its usual...
Seite 236 - This extract or infusion is evaporated by boiling in caldrons, and hops, or some other plant of an agreeable bitterness, added. The liquor is then allowed to ferment in vats. It is of different degrees of strength, and is denominated small beer, ale, porter, brown stout, &c., according to the quantity and nature of its ingredients. Beer is a name given in America to fermenting liquors made of various other materials ; and when a decoction of the roots of plants forms part of the composition, it is...
Seite 279 - In course of time, it also became the practice to call for a pint or tankard of three-threads, meaning a third of ale, beer, and two-penny ; and thus the publican had the trouble to go to three casks, and turn three cocks, for a pint of liquor.
Seite 33 - It was generally considered necessary in the vinegar trade, at a former period, to add a small portion of sulphuric acid to vinegar in order to counteract this tendency of the liquid to decomposition, and to preserve it from turbidity. This addition of sulphuric acid was permitted to the extent of one gallon of sulphuric acid to one thousand gallons of vinegar, by an excise regulation, and had, therefore, a legal sanction. But sulphuric acid is now known to be unnecessary in...
Seite 45 - I conduct by means of a pipe, into the convoluted perforated pipe before mentioned, or between the real bottom of the vessel and the perforated false bottom; hence the vapour passing through the numerous perforations of the false bottom and diaphragms, diffuses itself throughout every part of the vessel, its acid entering into combination with the base employed, and forming the acetate which falls to the bottom of the vessel, and in its descent meets with the ascending streams of vapour, the acid...
Seite 51 - As much fresh-burnt quick lime as was considered sufficient when powdered to absorb the whole of the alcohol, was introduced into a retort, and the alcohol added to it ; after digesting forty-eight hours, it was slowly distilled in a water-bath at a temperature of about 180° F. The alcohol thus obtained was carefully redistilled, and its specific gravity at 60° F.
Seite 16 - ... machine, A steam worm lies at the bottom of the vat, communicating with a boiler, and furnished with a stop-cock, the other end of the worm being open to the atmosphere. The vat is divided into several compartments by perforated diaphragms, and in the cover of the vat there is a valve opening upwards. Two thousand gallons of vinegar are first let into the vat to serve as mother...
Seite 77 - It may be here observed, that no portion of the wash passes through the small holes perforated in the diaphragms which separate the chambers. These holes are regulated both in number and size, so as to be not more than sufficient to afford passage to the vapour upwards under some pressure. The holes, therefore, afford no outlet for the liquor, which can only find its way down in the zig zag course indicated by the arrows.
Seite 69 - It often becomes a matter of great practical importance to have it in our power to excite the vinous fermentation under circumstances in which ordinary yeast cannot be obtained. In making bread, for example, although the use of yeast may be avoided by employing what is called "leaven," or dough which has already become sour, and partly putrefied by spontaneous change — a practice which has been followed from the most remote antiquity, and is still occasionally in use ; the bread so made is always...

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