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THE

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

VOL. VIII.

ELASTICITY TO EZRA.

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SCIENCE, ART, LITERATURE, AND PRACTICAL MECHANICS,

COMPRISING A

POPULAR VIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE.

ILLUSTRATED BY

NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, A GENERAL ATLAS,

AND APPROPRIATE DIAGRAMS.

Ste oportet ad librum, presertim miscellanei generis, legendum accedere lectorem, ut solet ad convivium conviva civihis.
Couvivator annititur omnibus satisfacere ; et tamen si quid apponitur, quod hujus aut illius palato non respondeat, et bic et
ille urbane dissimulant, et alia fercula probant, ne quid contristent conviratorem.

Erasmus.

A reader should sit down to a book, especially of the miscellaneous kind, as a well-behaved visitor does to a banquet. The
master of the feast exerts himself to satisfy his guests; but if, after all his care and paius, something should appear on the
table that does pot suit this or that person's taste, they politely pass it over without notice, and commend other dishes, that
they may not distress a kind host.

Translation

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PRINTED FOR THOMAS TEGG, 73, CHEAPSIDE;
R. GRIFFIN & Co., GLASGOW; TEGG AND CO., DUBLIN; ALSO J. & S. A. TEGG,

SYDNEY AND HOBART TOWN.

1839.

1-5 DEC 1964

LONDON:

PRINTED BY J. HADDON, CASTLE STREET, FINSBURY.

THE

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

Atterbury.

Thomson.

ELASTICITY of Fluids is accounted for supposing repulsion to be a primary cause, indefrom their particles being all endowed with a pendent of all others, has given rise to many centrifugal force; when Sir Isaac Newton (prop. erroneous theories, and been one very great xxxii. lib. 2.) demonstrates, that particles, which mean of embarrassing philosophers in their acnaturally avoid or fly off from one another by counting for the phenomena of electricity. such forces as are reciprocally proportioned to ELA TE, adj. & v.a.Lat. elatus, part. of verb the distances of their centre, will compose an ELA'TION, n.s. Jeffero, to exalt, &c., from elastic fluid, whose density shall be proportionale, forth, and fero, latum, to bring. Elevated ; to its compression; and vice versa, if any fluid lofty; flushed with station or dignity. The verb be composed of particles that fly off and avoid seems to be derived froin the adjective. one another, and hath its density proportional This king of kinges proud was and elat; to its compression, then the centrifugal forces He wend that God that sit in majestee of those particles will be reciprocally as the Ne might him nat bereve of his estat. distances of their centres.

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. ELASTICITY OF THE AIR is the force where God began to punish this vain elation of mind by with that element dilates itself, upon removing

withdrawing his favors. the force whereby it was before compressed.

Oh, thoughtless mortals ! ever blind to fate! See Air and ATMOSPHERE. The elasticity or

Tou soon dejected, and too snon elate! Pope. spring of the air was first discovered by Galileo.

I, of mind elate, and scorning fear,

Thus with new taunts insult the monster's ear. Its existence is proved by this experiment of that

Id. Odyssey. philosopher:-An extraordinary quantity of air

Or truth, divinely breaking on bis mind, being intruded by a syringe into a hollow glass Elates his being, and unfolds his power. or metal ball, till the ball, with this accession of air, weighs considerably more in the balance than

Fair was the blossom, soft the vernal sky: it did before ; upon opening the mouth thereof, Elate with hope we deemed no tempest nigh : the air rushes out, till the ball sink to its former When lo! a whirlwind's instantaneous gust weight. From hence we argue, that there is just Left all its beauties withering in the dust. as much air gone out, as compressed air had been

Beattie. crowded in. Air, therefore, returns to its former E LATE, in botany, a genus of the monecia degree of expansion, upon removing the force order and triandria class : Cal. none : cor. trithat compressed or resisted its expansion; con- petalous, with three stamina or with one pistil ; sequently it is endowed with an elastic force. It FRUIT an oval acuminated plum. Species one must be added, that, as the air is found to rush only, an Indian tree. out in every situation or direction of the orifice, ELATER, in zoology, a genus of insects, the elastic force acts every way, or in every di- belonging to the order of coleoptera. The anrection. The doctrine of the elasticity of the tennæ are setaceous; and an elastic spring or air is a considerable branch of pneumatics. The spine projects from the hinder extremity of the cause of this elasticity has been commonly as- breast or under side of the thorax. By means of cribed to a repulsion between its particles; but this kind of spring, the animal, when turned this can give us only a very slight idea of the upon its back, contrives to leap up into the air, tature of its elasticity. The term repulsion, like and so turn itself. It varies in size; and when that of attraction, requires to be defined; and in the insect is young, and newly metamorphosed, all probability will be found in most cases to be its elytra are of a beautiful deep red; but in a the effect of the action of some other fuid. few days they change to a much darker hue, and Thus, we find, that the elasticity of the atmo- are nearly of a chestnut color. In the state of sphere is very considerably affected by heat. larvæ it inhabits the trunks of decayed trees, and Supposing a quantity of air heated to such a is there transformed. With the help of its wings degree as is sufficient to raise Fahrenheit's ther- it issues from its prison, flutters upon flowers, mometer to 212°, it will then occupy a consider- wanders over the fields, and conceals itself in ale space. If it is cooled to such a degree as to thickets or under the bark of trees. sink the thermometer to 0°, it will shrink up into ELATEʻRIUM, *. $. Lat. An inspissated imes than half its former bulk. The quantity of juice, light, of a friable texture and an acid and Te puls.ve power, therefore, acquired by the air, pungent taste. It is procured from the fruit o while passing from one of these states to the a wild cucumber. It is a very violent and rough of het, is evidently owing to the heat added to or purge. taken away from it. Nor have we any reason to ELATERIUM, Elarnprov, in botany, a genus of $post, that the quantity of elasticity, or repul- the monandria order, monacia class of plants ; 11 power, it still possesses, is owing to any natural order thirty-fourth, cucurbitaceæ, male or Mier thing than the fire contained in it. The female: Cal. none : cor. Salver shaped : CAPS VOL. VIII.--PART 1.

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