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binding and selling only. He spent much On the termination of his apprenticeship of this time in reading the books that in 1812, he was employed as a journeyman passed through his hands. And among by a Mr. Delaroche, a bookbinder. His these he especially delighted in works mastor was so passionate that Faraday treating of chemistry and electricity. By soon resolved to leave. Besides this he this reading he acquired a strong liking was, he says, desirous to escape from trade, for natural philosophy, and was accord- which he hated, and to enter the service ingly anxious to attend, whenever he could, of science, which he loved. In the last the evening lectures delivered by a Mr. year of his apprenticesbip he had attended Tatum ou that subject, the shilling for four of Sir Humphry Davy's lectures at each lecture being usually paid by his the Royal Institution. He made notes of elder brother, Robert, who had been these lectures, wrote them out fully, and brought up as a blacksmith. Through sent his MSS. to Sir Joseph Banks the this Mr. Tatum, he became acquainted President of the Royal Society, together with a clerk in the city called Abbott. with a note expressing his desire to escape And it is to his letters to Mr. Abbott that from trade, and to be employed in some we are indebted for the very clear light work connected with science. Naturally that is thrown on his youthful days. I'he enough, «no answer' was the reply left correspondence with this clerk was com- with the porter.” However, a similar menced a little before the end of Faraday's application to Sir Humphry Davy shortly apprenticeship, and it is very curious to after produced the wished for result, and he observe the objects he had in view in main- was appointed by Sir Humphry to the post taining it. For in his first letter he sets of assistant in the laboratory of the Royal forth without reservation what those ob- Institution, with a salary of twenty-five jects were:

shillings a week, and with two rooms at • I, dear A., naturally love a letter, and take the top of the house. Humble as this poas much pleasure in reading one (when ad- sition was, no other would have been dressed to myself) and in answering one as in equally suited to develop his powers. almost anything else : and this good opinion Here he was in daily intercourse with the wbich I entertain has not suffered any injury greatest chemist of the age. His work for from the circumstances I have noticed above. Davy was an “ inexhaustible mine of I also like it for what I fancy to be good rea- knowledge and improvement.” He had sons drawn up in my owu mind upon the sub- opportunities of observing the method of ject, and from those reasons I have concluded Davy's investigations, and of learning as it that letter-writing improves, first, the band were the art of discovery. Here he witwriting; secondly, the - at this moment oc- nessed, among others, that series of excurs an instance of my great deficiency in letterwriting. I have the idea I want to express full. periments which resulted in the invention

of the safety-lamp. in my mind, but I have forgot the word that ex

After he had been at the Royal Institupresses it, a word common enough too. I mean the expression, the delivery, the composition or tion a few months, he went abroad as manner of connecting words; thirdly, it im- amanuensis to Sir H. Davy. They spent proves the mind by the reciprocal exchange of a year and a half together in France, Italy, knowledge; fourthly, the ideas — it tends I con- Switzerland, &c. During his travels Faraceive, to make the ideas clear and distinct (ideas day kept a journal, every page of which are generated or formed in the bead, and I will shows the keenness of his observation. give you an odd instance as a proof); fifthly, it He was by nature very observant, but this improves the morals. I speak pot of the abuse, faculty is, we think, brought out and debut the use of epistolation (if you will allow me veloped in all cases by the study of chemto coin a new word to express myself), and that istry. It is even more for this reason than nse I have no doubt produces other good effects. for the sake of the acquisition of useful Now I do not profess myself perfect in those knowledge that we rejoice to see the study points, and my deficiency in others connected with the subject you well know, as grammar; the ordinary curriculum of education in

of chemistry and other sciences added to etc. : therefore it follows that I want improving on these points : and what so natural in a dis- schools and colleges. Mathematics teaches ease as to resort to the remedy that will perform us to reason accurately, and classics to exa cure, and more so when the physic is so pleas- press our thoughts correctly, but we also ant; or, to express it in a more logical manner, want to cultivate habits of observation. and consequently more pbilosophically, M. F. The remark of Sir Humphry Davy is is deficient in certain points that he wants to nearly as applicable to our times as to make up, epistolary writing is one cure for the bis. deficiencies; therefore I should practise epistolary writing."

“ We are falling," he says, " into an error,

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the very reverse of that of our ancestors. We suggestions for the ordinary management
perhaps neglect facts too much, or at least, ex-of education, and a sure example for those
cept in chemistry, we are not sufficiently atten- who have the misfortune to be without the
tive to the records of facts. We are too fond of advantages of a long school life, but have
substituting literature for science, talents for neverthelesss a desire for the privileges of
inforınation, and wit or brilliant execution for education. The following quotation from
accurate and deep research.”

one of these youthful lectures shows that
Now for the purpose of producing habits he had at an early age mapped out the
of observing facts, no pursuit is more suit- course of his journey through life :-
ed than the study of chemistry and simi-
lar studies. Great chemists have almost

“ It is not he who has soared abore bis fellow
invariably exhibited stroug observant pow- mand most readily the pampering couch or the

creatures in power, it is not he who can com-
ers, not only in their scientific investiga- costly luxury; but it is he who has done most
tions but in the ordinary matters of every good to his fellows, he who has directed them in
day life.
In this his first absence from home, Far- and enlightened them in their ignorance, that

the weak moment, aided them in the necessity,
aday realized the depth of his affection for leads the ranks of mankind.”
his relations. His letters are full of ex-
pressions of love and regret for those at

At the Institution Faraday plodded on
home. On his way back he wrote to his quietly for some time, carrying on his self-

education side by side with his ordinary “ You may be sure we shall not creep from duties of chemical assistant. He was after Deal to London; and I am sure I shall not creep a while entrusted by Davy with some simto 18, Weymouth Street; and then – but it is ple work, and in process of time he began of no use, I have a thousand times endeavoured to make investigations for himself. The to fancy a meeting with you and my relations results of these investigations were puband friends : the reality must be a pleasure not lished in some of the journals of science. to be imagined or described.”

In this way he gradually became known to On his return to England in 1815, he the scientific world. When he was once went back to his old post at the Royal known, honours were showered upon him Institution. Not long after he began to from all parts. He was elected member or deliver lectures on chemistry at the City correspondent of various scientific sociePhilosophical Society. This was a society ties, and in 1823 attained the much-prized which inet at Mr. Tatum's house every title of F. R. S. This latter honour was, Wednesday evening for mutual instruc- however, not unacco

ccompanied with alloy. tion. Every other week a lecture was de- He had at the end of 1821 written some livered by one of the members, each taking articles on electro-magnetism for the “ Anhis turn, and on these occasions strangers nals of Philosophy.” The experiments he were admitted. The society had also a made for this purpose led him to make " class book," which contained essays by some discoveries, which he published in a the members, and was passed on from one paper on “ New Electrical Motions." He to another for perusal. Faraday had be- had some time before heard Dr. Woollascome a member on going to the Royal ton and Sir H. Davy conversing on the Institution, and at once entered with en- subject of electro-magnetism, after an exthusiasm into the spirit of the society. He periment they had made at the Royal Indid not rely merely on his own individual stitution, and he knew that Dr. Woollaston exertions in seeking after knowledge, but had been engaged on this subject. Acfelt that the intercoinmunication of thought cordingly, before publishing his paper, he was one of the greatest aids to those who called on Dr. Woollaston to obtain leave to were educating themselves. In addition make some reference to his ideas and disto the ordinary meetings of this society, a coveries. The Doctor had left town, and few of the members met once a week at his " by an error of judgment the paper was rooms “to read together, and to criticize, published without any allusiou to his opincorrect and improve each other's pronun-ions and intentions.” It was, we think, ciation and construction of language. The indeed a great error of judgment. Faradiscipline was,” he says, “ very sturdy, the day showed by his wish to see Dr. Woolremarks very plain and open, and the re- laston that he himself felt he ought to results most valuable.” We like to dwell on fer to the Doctor; and such reference the method of his self-education. His re- might have been attained by no other sacsources were apparently so small, and the rifice than the mere delay of the publicaresult so grand, that the consideration of tion for a short time. It was very natural the method cannot but be pregnant with for those who knew of Dr. Woollaston's




ideas and work as to this subject to think Woollaston's opinion was, that if “ Farthat some explanation was necessary, but it day acquited himself of making any incorwas hard on young Faraday to be at once rect use of the suggestions of others,” he accused of dishonesty; for he soon heard had no occasion to trouble himself much of rumours that he was charged “with about the matter. Unfortunately, expericoncealing the theory and views of Dr. ence shows us that a misrepresentation Woollaston, with taking the subject while once made is seldom wholly got rid of unDr. Woollaston was at work on it, and less with the clearest evidence. And in with dishonourably taking Dr. Woollas- this case the charge arose again with reton's thoughts and pursuing them without doubled vigour. When Faraday was proacknowledgment.” Faraday hastened at posed for the Fellowship of the Royal Soonce to clear himself of the charge. He ciety, a formidable opposition to his elecwrote to Dr. Woollaston the following tion was in preparation; he then pubfrank and manly letter:

lished a historical statement respecting “Sir,– I am urged by strong motives re- other earnest and clear explanations of

electro-magnetic rotation, and this and spectfully to request your attention for a few his conduct made it manifest to his oppo

The latter end of last month I wrote & paper on electro-magnetism, which I left in nents that the utmost which could be the hands of the printer of the Quarterly Jour-charged against him was that he had been nal, and went into the country. On returning thoughtlessly hasty in publishing his dishome the beginning of this month, I heard from coveries. This seems at first sight to be two or three quarters that it was considered I one of those unseemly squabblez, which had not behaved honourably in that paper; and sometimes occur among great men. But that the wrong I had done was done to you. I it was not so. It is pleasing to find Faraimmediately wished and endeavoured to see you, day saying that the kindness and liberalbut was prevented by the advice of my friends, ity of Dr. Woollaston had been constant and am only now at liberty to pursue the plan I to him throughout the whole affair. Alintended to have taken at first. If I have done though the conduct of Woollaston's friends anyone wrong, it was quite unintentional, and must have been painful to Faraday, yet it the charge of behaving dishonourably is not

I am bold enough, sir, to beg the favour was, we think, quite natural, although it of a few minutes' conversation with you on this might perhaps have been exhibited less subject, simply for these reasons; that I can

acrimoniously. It is only after much paclear myself, that I owe obligations to you, that tient toil, combined with good fortune, I respect you, that I am anxious to escape from that men of the most perceptive and inunfounded impressions against me, and if I have ventive powers make the smallest advance done any wrong that I may apologize for it. I in discovery. Accordingly it is but just do not think, sir, that you would regret allow- that the forger of any additional link in ing me this privilege; for, satisfied in my own the great chain of knowledge should remind of the simplicity and purity of my motives ceive the full honour of his addition to the in writing that paper, I feel that I should sat- world's wealth, and those who are anxious isfy you; and you would have the pleasure of that no portion of that honour should be freeing me from an embarrassment I do not de- shared by others are really doing good serve to lie under. Nevertheless, if for any service to the cause of science. reason you do not consider it necessary to permit it, I hope I shall not further have increased | with this Fellowship. Faraday found that

Another painful incident is connected any unpleasant feeling towards me in your his old friend and benefactor, Sir H. Davy, mind.

“I have very much simplified and diminished was opposed to his election. Their long in size the rotating apparatus, so as to enclose it and intimate intercourse must have coniu a tube. I should be proud if I may be al- vinced Davy of Faraday's powers, and the lowed, as a mark of strong and sincere respect, great chemist was most undoubtedly, to present one for your acceptance. I am al, though probably unconsciously, jealous of most afraid to make this request, not because I his advancement. Nor was it strange that know of the slightest reason which renders, it Davy should not see with complacency the improper, but because of the uncertain and in success of one who had been a kind of definite form of the rumours which have come servant of his, but who now seemed likely about me. But I trust, sir, that I shall not in

to rival, if not partially eclipse him. jure myself with you by adopting the simplest and most direct means of clearing up a misun

In 1821 Faraday inarried Miss Sarah derstanding that has arisen against me; but Barnard, one of the daughters of Mr. that what I do with sincerity you will receive Barnard of Paternoster Row, “ an event,” favourably.

he writes in 1849, “ which more than any “ I am, Sir, with great respect,

other contributed to his earthly happiness " Your obedient humble servant." and healthful state of mind. The union

has continued for twenty-eight years, and and gratitude on his part to do what he has in no wise changed, except in the could for the Royal Institution in the atdepth and strength of its character.", He tempt to establish it firmly. In 1829 he was allowed to bring his wife to the Insti- became a lecturer at the Royal Academy, tution, and here they lived together in Woolwich, and in 1833 he was appointed perfect happiness for many a long year. to the newly founded professorship of The tenderness and considerate affection chemistry at the Royal Institution, with a which he invariably exhibited towards salary of 1001. a year in addition to his Mrs. Faraday is, as we might expect, re- ordinary salary of 1001. as director of the flected clearly in his correspondence. His Laboratory. In 1835 a pension was granted letters to her remind us of those of Col- to him by the government. The circumling wood to his " dear Sarah.” The great stances connected with this are interesting, Adiniral himself might have penned the as showing his innate feeling of proper following:

pride and self-respect. At first he wrote “I feel rather tired and stiff myself

, and per- induced by his father-in-law to accept it.

to refuse the pension, but was afterwards haps that makes my letter so too; but my dear girl is, I know, á girl of consideration, and At an interview Lord Melbourne, then will not insist upon having two or three pages Prime Minister, made use of some inconof affection after so much narrative. Indeed 1 siderate expressions, such as “ humbug," see no use in measuring it out at all. I am with reference to pensions. Faraday at yours, my heart and thoughts are yours, and it once wrote to decline the offer of a penwould be a mere formality to write it down so, sion. Friends of both tried to remove the and capable of adding nothing to the truth, but misunderstanding between them, but Farthat I have as much pleasure in saying it as aday was immovable. On being asked you have in hearing it said, and that it is not what would induce him to change his with us at least a measure or token of affection mind, he replied, “I should require from merely, but the spontaneous result of it.”

his Lordship what I have no right or reaAnd again :

son to expect he would grant - a written “And now, my dear girl, I must set busi- apology for the words he permitted himness aside. I am tired of the dull detail of self to use to me.”

“ The required apolthings, and want to talk of love to you; and ogy came, frank and full, creditable," as surely there can be no circumstances under Dr. Tyndall says, “ alike to the Prime which I can have more right. The time was a Minister and the philosopher.” In 1836 cheerful and delightful one before we were mar- he was appointed scientific adviser to the ried, but it is doubly so now. I now can speak, Trinity House. In this capacity he intronot of my own heart only, but of both our duced very important improvements into hearts. I now speak, not with any doubt of the the lighthouses of the coast, and from state of your thoughts, but with the fullest con- time to time made most valuable reports viction that they answer to my own. All that I

on the subject of lights. His letter accan now say warm and animated to you, I

cepting the appointment is very characterknow that you would say to me agiin. The ex

istic: cess of pleasure which I feel in knowing you mine is doubled by the consciousness that you “ I consider your letter to me as a great comfeel equal joy in knowing me yours. Oh, my pliment, and should view the appointment at dear Sirah, poets may strive to describe, and the Trinity House, which you propose, in the artists to delineate the happiness which is felt same light; but I may not accept even honours by two hearts truly and mutually loving each without due consideration. In the first place, other, but it is beyond their efforts, an l beyond niy time is of great value to me, and if the apthe thoughts and conceptions of anyone who pointment you speak of involved anything like has not felt it. I have felt and do feel it, but | periodical routine attendances, I do not think neither I nor any other man can describe it, nor i could accept it. But if it meant that in conis it necessary. We are happy, and our God sultation, in the examination of proposed plans has blessed us with a thousand causes why we and experiments, in trinls, etc., made as my should be so. Adieu for to-night.”

convenience would allow, and with an bonest In 1825 he was advanced from the post would consist with my present engagements.

sepse of duty to be performed, then I think it of chemical assistant to that of Director of the Laboratory at the Institution, and You have left the title and the sum in pencil. this be retained almost to the last, not- of the appointment; yo'i will believe me to be

These I look at mainly as regards the character withstanding many alluring temptations sincere in this, when you remember my indifof other appointments. He was offered in ference to your proposition as a matter of inter1827 the Professorship in the new univer- est, though not as a matter of kindness. In sity of London, but he declined it on the consequence of the good-will and confidence of ground that he thought it a matter of duty'all around me, I can at any moment convert

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my time into money, but I do not require more ory of my own on voltaic electricity, which was of the latter than is sufficient for necessary pur- the subject of a letter from me to M. Arago on poses. The sum, therefore, of 2001. is quite April 23rd last, and which I here subjoin. M. enough in itself, but not if it is to be the indi- Arago was kind enough to read it to the Acadcator of the character of the appointment; but I emy, but I do not yet know the general opinion think you do not view it so, and that you and I on it. Will you have the goodness to tell me understand each other in that respect; and your sincerely if my theory is good or not, as nobody letter coufirms me in that opinion. The posi- is a better judge than yourself. Permit me also tion which I presume you would wish me to hold to ask you another question that interests me is analogous to that of a standing counsel. As much, on acconnt of a work I intend to pubto the title, it might be what you pleased al- / lish; what is the most suitable combination to most. Chemical adviser is too narrow; for you give to a voltaic battery, in order to produce a would find me venturing into parts of the phi- spark capable of setting fire to powder under losophy of light not chemical. Scientific adviser water or under ground? Up to the present I you inay think too broad (or in me too presump- have only seen employed to that purpose piles tuous); and so it would be, if by it was under of thirty to forty pairs constructed on Dr. Woolstood all science. It was the character I held laston's principles. They are very large, and with two other persons at the Admiralty Board inconvenient for field service. Could not the in its former constitution. The thought occurs same effect be priluced by two spiral pairs only, to me, whether, after all, you want such a per- and if so, what can be their smallest dimenson as myself. This you must judge of; but I sions? It is with infinite pleasure that I profit always entertain a fear of taking an office in of this opportunity to recall myself to your rewhich I may be of no use to those who engage membrance, and to assure you that no one enme. Your applications are however so practi- tertains a higher opinion of your scientific genius cal, and often so chemical, that I have no great than, yours truly, doubt in the matter."

“NAPOLEON Louis BONAPARTE. Faraday's life was peculiarly devoid of South and to Mr. Babbage.”

“I beg to be kindly remembered to Sir James incident. He lived on quietly year after year, experimenting and lecturing, and

Those who have seen her Majesty's occasionally making an excursion into the magnificent yacht, the “ Victoria and Alcountry or on the Continent for the sake bert,” have doubtlessly sometimes wonof rest. Though eminently of a social dered why it was constructed with paddledisposition, he went into society but very wheels. It is due to what Faraday calls a little. His domestic happiness was so “highly philosophic suggestion of the great, and his friendships so firm, that he late Prince Consort, that inasmuch as a seems to have found the little time he rotating disc resists any force tending to spared from his work barely sufficient for change the plane of its rotation, the rotacultivating these. In a list of things giv- tion of the paddle-wheels has a tendeney en up by him during the time of his ex- to diminish the rolling of a vessel. It was perimental researches in electricity, we owing to the kindness of the Prince that a find a note for the year 1831:—“Declined house on_Hampton Court Green was all dining out or invitations.” But his in- offered to Faraday by the Queen ; accordtimacy with the great scientific men of the ingly he left his rooms at the Institution day was most close, and it is very interest- in 1858, and made Hampton Court his resing to read letters from and to such men idence till his death. as Ilumboldt, Arago, Liebig, Babbage, &c. At his first interview with Davy, FaraThe following letter, however, is especially day spoke of his desire to escape from valuable from the after-history of the writ- trade, which he thought vicious and selfish, er. It shows that the most depressing and to enter into the service of science, circumstances could not overcome his which he imagined made its pursuers amiever-busy mind, which, when foiled in one able and liberal. Davy smiled at his nodirection, immediately betook itself to tion of the superior moral feelings of philwhat is perhaps, after all, the most sat- osophic men, and said he would leave him isfying – the investigation of physical to the experience of a few years to set him truths.

right on that matter. This was doubtless

good advice to give to a young man in “ Fort of Ham, May 23rd, 1843. “ Dear Sir,– You are not aware,

Faraday's position, with which his roman

I am sure, that since I have been here no person has afforded tic ideas naturally appeared somewhat inme more consolation than yourself. It is indeed congruous. Yet it must be admitted that in studying the great discoveries which science is the principle of“ buy cheap and sell dear,” indebted to you for, that I render my captivity has a tendency to narrow and degrade a less sad, and make time flow with rapidity. í man's sympathies, and to make hiin live submit to your judgment and indulgence a the- more and more for himself, however much

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