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POEMS WRITTEN BETWEEN 1718

AND 1727.

115

AN INSCRIPTION' UPON À PUNCA-

Bowl

115

EPISTLE TO JAMES CRAGG, Esq.

115

A DIALOGUE

VERSES TO MR. C.

116

To MR. GAY

116

ON DRAWINGS OF THE STATUES OF

APOLLO, VENUS, AND HERCULES 116

EPISTLE TO ROBERT, EARL OF Ox-

FORD AND MORTIMER

116

Two CHORUSES TO THE TRAGEDY

OF

BRUTUS,

CHORUS OF ATHENIANS

117

CHORUS OF YOUTHS AND `VIR-

GINS

117

To MRS. M. B. ON HER BIRTHDAY. 118

ANSWER TO THE FOLLOWING QUES-

TION OF MRS. HOWE

118

ON A CERTAIN LADY Ar Court

118

To MR. JOHN MOORE

119

THE CURLL MISCELLANIES.

UMBRA

119

BISHOP HOUGH

119

SANDYS' GHOST

EPITAPH

121

THE THREE GENTLE SHEPHERDS 121

ON THE COUNTESS OF BURLING-

TON CUTTING PAPER

121

EPIGRAM: AN EMPTY HOUSE 121

POEMS SUGGESTED BY_GULLIVER.

ODE TO QUINBUS FLESTRIN 121

THE LAMENTATION OF GLUMDAL-

CLITCH FOR THE LOSS OF GRIL-

122

TO MR. LEMUEL GULLIVER

123

MARY GULLIVER TO CAPT. LEM-

UEL GULLIVER

123

LATER POEMS.

ON CERTAIN LADIES

125

CELIA .

125

PROLOGUE (TO A PLAY FOR MR. DEN-

NIS'S BENEFIT).

125

SONG, BY A PERSON OF QUALITY 126

VERSES LEFT BY MR. POPE

126

On His GROTTO AT TWICKENHAM. 127

ON RECEIVING FROM THE RIGHT

HON. THE LADY FRANCES SHIRLEY

A STANDISH AND Two PENS 127

ON BEAUFORT HOUSE GATE AT CHIS-

WICK

TO MR. THOMAS SOUTHERN

128

EPIGRAMS

128

1740: A POEM

128

POEMS OF UNCERTAIN DATE.

To ERINNA

130

LINES WRITTEN IN WINDSOR FOREST 130

VERBATIM FROM BOILEAU

130

LINES ON SWIFT'S ANCESTORS

130

ON SEEING THE LADIES AT CRUX

EASTON WALK IN THE Woods BY

THE GROTTO

131

INSCRIPTION ON A GROTTO, THE

WORK OF NINE LADIES.

DRIG.

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127

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Note. The photogravure frontispiece is from a portrait painted by Richardson at Twicken-
ham, where the artist, at Pope's request, was painting a portrait of his mother. Mr. James T.
Fields bought the picture at the sale of the Marquess of Hastings's gallery, and it is now in the
possession of Mrs. Fields, by whose courtesy it is reproduced.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

ALEXANDER POPE was born in London, May 21, 1688. We cannot be sure of anye thing better than respectability in his ancestry, though late in life he himself claimed kinship with the Earls of Downe. His paternal grandfather is supposed to have been a clergyman of the Church of England. His mother, Edith Turner, came of a family of small gentry and landowners in Yorkshire. Alexander Pope, senior, was a successful linen merchant in London; so successful that he found it possible to retire early from business, and to buy a small estate at Binfield, on the edge of Windsor forest. To this estate, in Pope's twelfth year, the family removed from Kensington, and here they lived for sixteen years. In 1716 they removed to Chiswick, where a year later the father died. Soon afterwards Pope, then a man of note, leased the estate at Twickenham, on which he was to live till his death, in 1744.

The circumstances of Pope's early life were in many ways peculiar. One of the main reasons for the choice of Binfield was that a mumber of Roman Catholic families lived in that neighborhood. They formed a little set sufficiently agreeable for social purposes, though not offering much intellectual stimulus to such a mind as Pope's very early showed itself to be. But if to be a Roman Catholic in England then meant to move in a narrow social circle, it carried with it also more serious limitations. It debarred from public school and university; so that beyond the inferior instruction afforded by the small Catholic schools which he attended till his twelfth year, Pope had no formal education. Two or three facts recorded of this school experience are worthy of mention : that he was taught the rudiments of Latin and Greek together, according to the Jesuit method; that he left one school in consequence of a flogging which he had earned by satirizing the head master; and that at about the age of ten he built a tragedy on the basis of Ogilvy's translation of Homer. At twelve he had at least learned the rudiments of Greek, and could read Latin fluently, if not correctly. So far as his failings in scholarship are concerned, Pope's lack of formal education has probably been made too much of. He had no bent for accurate scholarship, nor was breadth and accuracy of scholarship an accomplishment of that age. Addison, whose literary career was preceded by a long period of university residence, knew very little of Greek literature, and had a by no means wide acquaintance with the literature of Rome. Yet scholarship in those days meant classical learning.

Pope might no doubt have profited by the discipline of a regular academic career. He needed, as Mr. Courthope says, training in thought rather than in taste, which he had by nature.' But such a mind as his is not likely to submit itself readily to rigid processes of thought. It is impossible not to see, at least, that the boy Pope knew how to read, if not how to study; and that what Latin and Greek he read was approached as literature, a method more common then than now, it is probable. When I had done with my priests,' he wrote to Spence, 'I took to reading by myself, for which I had a very great eagerness and enthusiasm, especially for poetry; and in a very few years I had dipped into a great number of English, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek poets. This I did without any design but that of pleasing myself, and got the language by hunting

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