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nothing, nor did he have any skill in manual labor. He could not even drive a nail. But he says his childhood was not unhappy and that he was a hearty and high-spirited boy. At eight he began the study of Latin, which he in turn taught to his younger brothers and sisters. This was good training and discipline for his mind, but he thought it not advantageous in other respects. By the time he was twelve he had read all the classics, Latin and Greek, that are studied at the great universities and then took up logic and political economy. He was taught no religious belief, but the principles of a lofty morality were carefully instilled into him and the ideals of his life were high and noble. At fourteen his education was considered complete and he passed the following year in France, where he was an inmate of the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, a brother of Jeremy Bentham, of whom the elder Mill was a friend and follower. At sixteen he began to write for the press, and at seventeen became a servant of the East India Company, in whose employment he remained for many years. Thus the youth entered manhood, destined by his father to be an apostle of reform. He had the ambition to assume the rôle, but when he came into contact with actual life and with men, and saw how hard it was to make an impression upon them and how almost impossible it was to introduce even the smallest change in established customs and habits, his misgivings overcame him for a time and he passed through a period of great depression. The chapter in the autobiography on this crisis in his mental history is the finest in the volume. It was at this period that he first met with Wordsworth's poems. He says:

I took up the collection of his poems from curiosity, with no expectation of mental relief from it, though I had before resorted to poetry with that hope. In the worst period of my depression I had read through the whole of Byron (then new to me) to try whether a poet, whose peculiar department was supposed to be that of intense feeling, could rouse any feeling in me. As might be expected, I got no good from this reading, but the reverse. The poet's state of mind was too much like my own. . . . . But while Byron was exactly what did not suit my condition Wordsworth was exactly what did.

He became an ardent Wordsworthian, though not so much so as to admire everything he wrote —for he did not like the “Excursion ”—but he speaks repeatedly of the benefit he received from Wordsworth. The acquaintances he made also

had an important influence upon him, and he speaks particularly of the influence of John Sterling and of Carlyle. He finally emerged from his cave of gloom, and in 1830 commenced his political and philosophical writings. From that period until the end of his life he exerted an immense influence on English thought. When the Carlyles moved to London, in 1834, John Stuart Mill welcomed and soon became on intimate terms with them. In his “Reminiscences.” Carlyle thus describes him :

He had taken a great attachment to me (which lasted about ten years and then suddenly ended, I never knew how), an altogether clear, logical, honest, amicable, affectionate young man, and respected as such here, though sometimes felt to be rather colorless, even aqueous, no religion in any form traceable in him.

And again he says: “His talk is sawdustish, like ale when there is no wine to be had.”

As a critic in the Westminster Review Mill became very influential. He was among the first to discover the genius of Tennyson, and when the Quarterly was ridiculing Tennyson's first volume, the Westminster highly praised it.

So, too, of Carlyle. It was Mill's praise of “The French Revolution ” which saved that book. Perhaps Mill felt some reponsibility in borrowed the history in manuscript, had loaned the first volume to his friend, Mrs. Taylor, and through her carelessness it had been destroyed. It was a terrible blow to all concerned, though Carlyle took it more philosophically than the others. After a course of novels he resolutely sat down and rewrote the volume. When the book was published Mill pointed out its great beauties and declared that a new and powerful writer had appeared. In his autobiography Mill speaks of Carlyle's great influence on himself, and acknowledges his debt to him. In 1865 Mill was elected to the House of Commons, but his parliamentary career was something of a disappointment. He did not possess the oratorical temperament, and while he was listened to with respect he exerted no particular influence. He failed of re-election in 1868. His remaining years were passed at Avignon, in France. He died in 1873 in his sixty-seventh year, meeting death with the philosophical fortitude that had characterized his life. His autobiography is a very curious and interesting book.

the matter. It will be remembered that he had


WHoEveR reads the memoirs, diaries, journals and reminiscences in which social life in London between the years 1830 and 1870 is described will constantly meet with the names of Mr. and Mrs. George Grote. They possessed a large circle of friends, embracing everybody in the literary world best worth knowing, and they seem to have been great favorites. He was a learned and amiable gentleman of extremely liberal opinions, and she was a cultivated but extremely eccentric woman. He was gentle and refined— almost feminine in his manner; she was tall, highshouldered, uncommonly handsome, but masculine in appearance and brusque even to rudeness in her intercourse with society. She was two years his senior and they were married in 1820, when he was twenty-six and she twenty-eight. They lived to old age, he dying in 1871 at the age of seventy-seven and she in 1878 at the age

of eighty-six. After his death she published his

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