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and ability in overcoming the numerous difficulties with which they had to contend.
The captains and commanders of the ships appointed for guarding the port, have executed that tedious and anxious duty with diligence and success. During my absence from the squadron, the blockade has been conducted by Rear-admiral Sir R. Bickerton; and justice requires me to mention, that when I was with the squadron, Captain Wilson, of the Trusty, was unwearied in his attention to the direction of all the duties in this bay.
The Captain Pacha has uniformly manifested the most anxious desire of contributing by every means in his power, to the promotion of the service. Having been generally on shore with his troops, the ships have been submitted, by his orders, to my direction, and the officers have paid the most respectful attention to the instructions they have received from me.
Captain Sir Sidney Smith, who has served with such distinguished reputation in this country, having applied to be the bearer of the despatches announcing the expulsion of the enemy; I have complied with his request, and I beg to refer their Lordships to that active and intelligent officer for any particular information relative to this or other parts of the country, on which he has had opportunities of making remarks.
I have the honour to be, &c.
Foudroyant, Bay of Aboukir,
You will be pleased to acquaint their Lordships, that the Captain Pacha and I have agreed on the enclosed distribution of the vessels of war found in the enemy's possession in Alexandria, of which I trust their Lordships will approve. , I have, &c.
Captain Pacha—Cause, 64; Justice, 46; No. 1, Venetian, 26.
Lord Keith—L'Egyptienne, 50; Regenere, 32; No. 2, Venetian, 26.
The Turkish corvettes to be given to the Captain Pacha; but to be previously valued.
King's speech on meeting of parliament—Treaties of peace with Russia—Definition of articles contraband of war unsatisfactory —Of blockaded ports—Of stopping neutrals—Of the right of search admitted; but still abounding with difficulties—Heavy responsibility of the captors—Ship of war with convoy not to resist by force the right of search, or detention of their convoy—National flag proved by the captain and one-half the crew, and papers—Indemnification for illegal detention— Treaty with France—All foreign settlements to be restored by us, except Trinidad and Ceylon—Cape to be a free port -—Malta to be evacuated by British troops, and restored to the Knights of Jerusalem—French to evacuate Naples and Roman territory—Republic of Seven Islands acknowledged— Private claims—Fisheries—Fortifications—Debates on the above in parliament—Remarks of Lord Grenville, Duke of Clarence, Lord Pelham, Earl of Moira, Lord NelsonHouse of Commons—Lord Hawkesbury—Treaties between France, Austria, Naples, Spain, Portugal, Algiers, and the Porte—Forebodingcalm—St.Domingo—Prussians in Hanover —Turkish empire—Paswan Oglou—Seven Islands—East Indies—State of Europe, as described by Thebadeau—Remarks on the peace—Lord Grenville's speech on treaty with Russia and neutral trade—Observatious—Dissolution of armed neutrality—Remarks on privateers.
The parliament, which had been prorogued on the 2d of July by commission, met again on the 29th of October, when the King opened the session in person, and was graciously pleased to communicate to his people, that his endeavours to bring about a peace had been successful; that the differences with the northern powers had been adjusted by a convention with the emperor of Russia, to which the kings of Denmark and Sweden had expressed their readiness to accede ; and that the essential rights, for which we had contended, having been thereby secured, provision was made, that the exercise of them should be attended with as little molestation as possible to the subjects of the contracting parties; that preliminaries of peace had also been concluded between his Majesty, and the French republic; and his Majesty trusted, that while the important arrangement manifested the justice and moderation of his views, it would also be found conducive to the substantial interests of the country, and honourable to the British character.
Convention with the Court of London, signed at St. Petersburgh, the 5th (17th) June, 1801.
In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.
Art. I. There shall be hereafter, between his Imperial Majesty of all the Russias and his Britannic Majesty, their subjects, the states and countries under their domination, good and unalterable friendship and understanding; and all the political, commercial, and other relations of common utility between their respective subjects, shall subsist as formerly, without their being disturbed or troubled in any manner whatever.
II. His Majesty the Emperor and his Britannic Majesty, declare, that they will take the most especial care of the execution of the prohibitions against the trade of contraband of their subjects, with the enemies of each of the high contracting parties.
III. His Imperial Majesty of all the Russias and his Britannic Majesty, having resolved to place under a sufficient safeguard the freedom of commerce and navigation of their subjects, in case one of them shall be at war, whilst the other shall be neuter, have agreed:
1. That the ships of the neutral power shall navigate freely to the ports, and upon the coasts, of the nations at war.
2. That the effects embarked on board neutral ships shall be free, with the exception of contraband of war, and of enemy's property; and it is agreed, not to comprise in the number of the latter, the merchandise of the produce, growth, or manufacture, of the countries at war, which should have been acquired by the subjects of the neutral power, and should be transported for their account; which merchandise cannot be excepted in any case from the freedom granted to the flag of the said power.
3. That, in order to avoid all equivocation and misunderstanding of what ought to be qualified as contraband of war, his Imperial Majesty of all the Russias and his Britannic Majesty declare, conformably to the 11th Article of the treaty of commerce, concluded between the two crowns, on the 10th (21st) February, 1797, that they acknowledge as such, only the following objects, viz. cannons, mortars, fire-arms, pistols, bombs, grenades, balls, bullets, firelocks, flints, matches, powder, saltpetre, sulphur, helmets, pikes, swords, sword-belts, pouches, saddles, and bridles; excepting, however,the quantity of the said articles, which may be necessary for the defence of the ship, and of those who compose the crew; and all other articles whatever, not enumerated here, shall not be reputed warlike and naval ammunition, nor be subject to confiscation, and of course shall pass freely, without being subject to the smallest difficulty, unless they be considered as enemy's property in the above settled sense. It is also agreed, that that which is stipulated in the present article, shall not be to the prejudice of the particular stipulations, of one or the other powers, by which objects of similar kinds should be reserved, prohibited, or permitted.
4. That, in order to determine what characterizes a blockaded port, that denomination is given only to that where there is, by the disposition of the power which attacks it, with ships stationary or sufficiently near, an evident danger in entering.
5. That the ships of the neutral power shall not be stopped, but upon just causes and evident facts: that they be tried without delay, and that the proceeding be always uniform, prompt, and legal. In order the better to ensure the respect due to these stipulations, dictated by tbe sincere desire of conciliating all interests, and to give a new proof of their loyalty and love of justice, the high contracting parties enter here into the most formal engagement, to renew the severest prohibitions to their captains, whether of ships of war or merchantmen, to take, keep, or conceal, on board their ships, any of the objects which, in terms of the present convention, may be reputed contraband, and respectively to take care of the execution of the orders which they shall have published in their admiralties, and wherever it shall be necessary.
IV. The two high contracting parties, wishing to prevent all subject of dissension in future, by limiting the right of search of merchant-ships going under convoy, to the sole causes in which the belligerent power may experience a real prejudice, by the abuse of the neutral flag, have agreed,—
1. That the right of searching merchant-ships, belonging to the subjects of one of the contracting powers, and navigating tinder convoy of a ship of war of the same power, shall only be exercised by ships of war of the belligerent party, and shall never extend to the fitters-out of privateers, or other vessels, which do not belong to the imperial or royal fleet of their majesties, but which their subjects shall have fitted out for war.
2. That the proprietors of all merchant-ships belonging to the subjects of one of the contracting sovereigns, which shall be destined to sail under convoy of a ship of war, shall be required, before they receive their sailing orders, to produce to the commander of the convoy their passports and certificates, or sealetters, in the form annexed to the present treaty.
3. That when such ship of war, and every merchant-ship under convoy, shall be met with by a ship or ships of war, of the other contracting party, who shall then be in a state of war, in order to avoid all disorder, they shall keep out of cannonshot, unless the situation of the sea, or the place of meeting, renders a nearer approach necessary; and the commander of the ship of the belligerent power shall send a sloop on board the convoy, where they shall proceed reciprocally to the verification of the papers and certificates that are to prove, on one part, that the ship of war is authorized to take under its escort such or such merchant-ships of its nation, laden with such a cargo, and for such a port: on the.other part, that the ship of war of the belligerent party belongs to the imperial oc royal fleet of their majesties. . . i
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