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orders to permit tbem to return to France without disturbance. At the same time I thought it my duty to my King, and those of his allies, whose states lie in the seas through which they are to pass, to require that they should not return in a mass, nor in ships of war, nor in armed ships. I wished likewise that the cartels should carry no merchandise, which would be contrary to the law of nations. I have likewise asked of General Kleber, his word of honour, that neither he nor his army would commit any hostilities against the coalesced powers, and I doubt not that General Kleber will find the conditions perfectly reasonable. Captain Hay* has received my orders to allow you to proceed to France with Adjutant-general Cambis, as soon as he arrives at Leghorn.

(Signed) KEITH.

This letter produced no farther amicable arrangement: the French army continued its operations; and the British squadron blockaded the coast of Egypt until the following year; the intermediate time being occupied in the siege and blockade of Genoa and Malta, and the fruitless summons of Cadiz; after which the British fleet and its numerous convoy of transports went over to Tetuan-bay on the coast of Barbary, to complete its water and obtain a supply of fresh provisions. Here they met with so much bad weather that the ships lost between sixty and eighty anchors and cables. In the mean time the brave but unfortunate Kleber fell by the hand of an assassin, an event which completed the ruin of the French cause in Egypt.

It was long doubtful how this fine army should be employed; but the surrender of Malta, and the battle of Hohenlinden, where Moreau, in the

* The late Capt. John Baker Hay, Royal Navy.

December preceding, had defeated the Austrians, probably decided the British cabinet to prepare for the invasion of Egypt.

In no events of our history has the military honour of Britain been carried to a greater degree of splendour, than in our transactions in Egypt; whether we consider the landing in presence of a superior force, or the decided superiority of courage and conduct in our soldiers and sailors. It was on the sands of Egypt, that the modern French first learned to form a proper estimate of the character of a British soldier.

France can never blot from her history the records of her defeats and her infamy in that unhappy country, where the wrongs of the Egyptians were avenged by the valour and magnanimity of Great Britain.

Our forces were ordered to rendezvous during the winter months, at Minorca and Malta. About the middle of December, 1800, Lord Keith, accompanied by Rear-admiral Sir Richard Bickerton, had collected the whole of the force in the harbour of Valette ; whence, on the 20th, the first division sailed for the harbour of Marmorice, on the coast of Caramania in Asia Minor. The second division arrived on the 31st of January; and the Commanders-in-chief lost no time in putting their men and ships into the most efficient state for the intended campaign. The ships of war and transports were immediately supplied with as much fuel and water as they could stow; the troops were exercised in the mode of getting into the boats, landing and retreating in every variety of circumstances. This judicious management, while it conduced both to the health of the men, and their perfection in the art of war, allowed the agents of transports to clean and ventilate their vessels. A great part of the troops were landed and placed under tents, and the wonderful sight of a British fleet at anchor in this noble harbour, excited the admiration and astonishment of the timid Asiatics. Three weeks were well and profitably employed in this manner; and on the 20th of February, the fleet unmoored, and sailed on the 23d for the coast of Egypt. The number of vessels assembled on this occasion, including hired Greeks, amounted to one hundred and seventy-five sail. A gale of wind soon compelled the Greeks, and some of the smaller vessels, to run for Cyprus; while the Admiral continued his course to the place of his destination, where he was to expect an unhealthy climate, with every local disadvantage, and every possible privation. Maps and charts of the coast or interior were scarce, and not to be depended on. The only persons acquainted with the coast were, Captain the Honourable Courtney Boyle, who had been shipwrecked near Damietta, and taken prisoner by the French, and Sir Sidney Smith who was serving with Lord Keith in the expedition.

Names of ships and captains employed on the expedition to Egypt.

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C Admiral Lord Keith
( P. Beaver, W. Young

Honourable A. F. Cochrane

Thomas Louis

George Martin

Sir W. Sidney Smith, Knight.

Benjamin Hallowell

{Rear-adm. Sir R. Bickerton
William Hope
Robert Middleton
Henry Blackwood
Alexander Wilson
James Young
Charles Ogle
John Clarke Serle
James Hardy

Expedition (flute)
Charon (ditto) •
Renommee (ditto)
Tonterelle (ditto)
Modeste (ditto)
Cynthia (ditto)
Astrea (ditto) •

Benjamin Wm. Page
James Stephenson
George Scott
George Clarke
Hugh Downman
John I.armour
John Broughton
t * Rear-admiral Sir J. Warren
I F. L. Maitland

• 44 Thomas Wilson

• 44 Richard Bridges

• 36 Peter M'Kellar

• 32 John Furgusson

• 36 Martin Hinton

• 18 John Dick

• 32 Peter Robolian

* Joined the fleet in May; there were some other ships with him, but their names we cannot obtain.


general Sir Ralph Abercrombie, amounted to about fifteen thousand men, of whom not more than twelve thousand were fit to take the field.

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