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of union, which tended with other causes to render their plans abortive.
The army was commanded by General Le Clerc, brother-in-law of the Chief Consul. The Spanish part of the armament was commanded by Admiral Gravina, who had his flag in the Neptuno, but parted company soon after their sailing, and put into Ferrol, to have his ship repaired. He joined again at Cape Samana, in the month of January, with all the ships from Ferrol and Rochefort. Villaret, after giving an account of these transactions, says, "it was nevertheless still doubtful whether they should discover in Toussaint L'Ouverture, a faithful Frenchman, or a rebel African."
The forces were divided into three bodies, and directed to land in three distinct places: the first under the orders of the Commander-in-chief Le Clerc, and conducted by Villaret, was to take possession of Cape Francois; the second under General Boudet, conducted by Rear-admiral La Touche Treville, was to land at Port-au-r Prince; the third under General Rochambeau, and conducted by Captain Magen, was to disembark in Mancenille-bay, and second the attack of Rochambeau on Fort Dauphin. ...:
When Admiral Villaret, in the Ocean, with his division presented himself before the road of Cape Francois, a mulatto, who acted as captain of the port, came off and informed him, that the black general, Christophe, had declared that the whites should be murdered, and the town set on fire, the very moment the squadron entered the pass, unless the Admiral would wait the return of a courier, sent to Governor Toussaint L'Ouverture. The General wrote in vain to Christophe, acquainting him with the "benevolent intentions" of the Chief Consul. The black general was firm, and Toussaint was perfectly aware of the nature of the indulgences intended to be shewn to his countrymen.
Rochambeau having made good his landing in Mancenille-bay, and the French troops having obtained possession of Port Dauphin, Le Clerc thought to land with equal facility at Acul. Villaret advanced with two sail of the line, the Scipion and the Patriote, to Fort Picolet, when the blacks, true to their word, set fire to the city of the . Cape, and opened a furious cannonade on the two ships; all night the French, from their fleet, beheld the conflagration, unable to afford any assistance to the wretched inhabitants. Villaret, at daylight, pushed in with the Ocean; the ^blacks deserted Forts Picolet and St. Joseph, while General Humbert, with two hundred men, took possession of Fort Belair. Rear-admiral Latouche, with General Boudet, made a desperate attack, and succeeded in taking Fort Republican; and "eight days," says Villaret, "sufficed for the whole operations, which presented a mass of fortunate results, and guaranteed to France the possession of her finest colony." He was now joined by Rearadmiral Linois, with another division from Cadiz; but that officer running too close to the shore, the St. Gennaro and the Dessaix, of seventy-four guns, struck on the rocks off the city of Cape Francois. The latter was lost, the other got off with considerable damage; and Linois, the most unfortunate of all naval officers, lamented, in a letter which he wrote to Villaret, the accident which had befallen his friend, the brave Palliere, who commanded the Dessaix, at the battle of Algeziras.
Such was the situation of St. Domingo, when Rear-admiral George Campbell sailed with his squadron from Spithead, in 1802. In the month of April he reached Jamaica, where he became second in command, and had a force of two-andtwenty sail of the line cruising between that island and Hispaniola. The cabinet of St. James's must have felt some little alarm for Jamaica, and the precautions taken for its security, though expensive, were certainly justifiable. Villaret announced his arrival and his success to Rear-admiral Sir John Duckworth, the British Commanderin-chief; gave him an account of the land and sea forces, either arrived or expected; and entreated his good offices towards the fleets and armies of France. The French Admiral proposed sending most of the flutes, with six or seven ships of the line, back to Europe. Gantheaume arrived with his division, which sailed from Toulon on the 9th of January, and after a passage of little more than thirty days, landed two thousand three hundred men, of whom thirteen only were sent to the hospitals. This last piece of information (if correct) is only to be accounted for, by supposing that there were no hospitals to receive them, or that the patients did not live to reach them, as we find it acknowledged by General Dampierre, that the soldiers died as soon as they landed.
On the 8th of May, General Le Clerc wrote to the minister of marine and the colonies, and acquainted him with the happy events which had restored tranquillity to St. Domingo; that the rebels were every where defeated and dispersed; terror in their camps, without magazines, without powder, and the blacks reduced to live upon bananas. The arrival of the squadrons from Flushing and Havre had completed their overthrow. Christophe had surrendered, and Toussaint had followed his example. Dessalines was sent to a plantation near St. Marc, and the city of Cape Francois was rebuilding. Commerce was reviving, and the Americans prevented from supplying the blacks with arms and ammunition.
It was probably in consequence of this favourable appearance of affairs in St. Domingo, that the British Admiral, on the Jamaica station, was enabled to send home three divisions of ships of the line; in July, five sail arrived at Plymouth; six at Portsmouth; and in September, Rear-admiral Campbell arrived at Plymouth, with six more.
T\iePrecisdesEvenemensMilitaires,vol.viu. p. 227, gives an afflicting account of the horrors attending this expedition. Dessalines, unable to prevent the capture of Port-au-Prince, had arrested all the white planters within his reach, and compelled them to join in his march. Quitting the town of St. Marc, he gave it up to the flames, and his cruel footsteps were every where marked with fire and blood: all the whites were massacred; Arcahave was reduced to cinders, and its inhabitants murdered. Bonaparte attempted to gain the mind of Toussaint by an act of generosity, to which the black chief was insensible. He sent out to him his two sons, whom Toussaint had sent to France for their education: the inflexible negro received them with parental kindness—their mother embraced them, and they joined their entreaties to those of Mons. Cuanon, their preceptor, that their father would accept of the terms proposed by Bonaparte. Toussaint said he would return an answer to Le Clerc, once more embraced his boys, and dismissed them to the Cape, requesting of Le Clerc some time to deliberate. The General gave him four days, and sent back his sons; but no farther reply being sent, Le Clerc renewed hostilities, and Toussaint, retaining his sons, defended himself with valour in his strong hold of La Coupe de Pintade. His intrenchments were forced by his daring enemy, who killed eight hundred of his best men; and after witnessing the defection of his black colleagues, Maurepas, Christophe, and Dessalines, Toussaint came in with his guard, and submitted to the terms proposed to him, but refused to take any office of trust, and