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timely and temperate application of force, where argument has failed. It is as follows:—

Petersburgh, April 2, 1802.

I have the satisfaction of transmitting to your Lordship, the Swedish act of accession to the convention of the 17th of June, 1801, which was signed (with its duplicate) on the 30th past, by myself, and the Baron de Stedingk; and instrumeuts of a like tenor were at the same time interchanged between that minister and the plenipotentiaries of his Imperial Majesty. I have moreover the satisfaction of being enabled to assure your Lordship, that the Swedish ambassador has been distinctly informed by the Count de Kotschoubey, that as the motives which had occasioned the late revival of the system of the armed neutrality were now happily done away, that system is considered by this court as completely annulled and abandoned, not only as a general code of maritime law, but even in its more limited meaning of a specific engagement between the Russians and the other confederates.

One stipulation in this treaty is deserving of notice and commendation; the right of search conceded to ships of war, was denied to that disgraceful species of national force, and universal annoyance, the privateers; and it is sincerely to be wished, that the belligerents would, in future wars, deny to individuals those commissions by which, in the name and under the flag of their government, they commit the most barbarous spoliation and outrage on property and persons. This right of search was, however, only denied to privateers while the merchant-vessel was under the protection of a ship of war; at all other times, the licensed pirate was at liberty to pursue his career of plunder with impunity. We have.no objection to letters of marque being granted to reputable merchant-ships in the East and West Indies, or other traders; they have so often defended themselves with valour and prudence, that it would ill become a naval officer to deny their merit, or abate their rewards; but we cannot think that a vessel fitted out by private individuals expressly for the purpose of cruising upon the enemy, ought to be countenanced by a nation possessing at one time the astonishing number of one thousand sail of ships and vessels of war. Let it be remembered also, that those privateers deprive the navy of seamen, while they diminish the fair prospects and compensation of its services.

Our amicable intercourse with Portugal had been interrupted in 1800, by the successful policy of Bonaparte and the weakness of the court of Madrid. Portugal next to India was considered by our enemies as " the most valuable colony of England." The Count de Dumas, in his Precis des Evenemens Militaires, vol. 7. p. 58. says, "Notwithstanding the advantages England derived from her commerce, the flag of Portugal was as much insulted as that of any other nation." This is not correct; and many instances could be adduced in support of a contrary assertion. Charles IV. of Spain, and his wicked minister, Godoy (blasphemously named "the Prince of peace"), pursuing at that time the policy of the Philips, prepared those calamities, which soon after afflicted

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the Peninsula, and the effects of which that unhappy country is now feeling.

A French army, under St. Cyr, entered Spain early in 1801, and the haughty Consul dictated his imperious commands to his two impotent vassals, who submitted to his will. The British army, which in the spring of 1800, had been embarked under the command of Sir James Pulteney, and conducted by Sir John Warren, might have been intended to land on the shores of the Tagus; and the Count de Dumas supposes that it was prevented by a disagreement between the courts of London and Lisbon. We rather suppose that the British cabinet thought the best way to defend its ally, was to threaten Spain; and therefore made the attempts on Ferrol, Vigo, and Cadiz, which have been related. These transactions, which preceded the battle of Hohenlinden, produced no effect on the councils of the Spanish King; who, in the month of February, 1801, declared war against Portugal; and Godoy entered the province of Alentejo, which he entirely overran. This induced the Prince Regent of Portugal to make peace with Spain, in the month of June following; and one of the conditions was, that British shipping and commerce should be excluded from all his ports; and thesame is repeated in a treaty which soon followed between France and Portugal. It was in consequence of these treaties that the British govern

ment seized the island of Madeira, and placed garrisons in all the colonies or factories of the Portuguese in the East Indies, except Macao. The treaty of Badajos, referred to by Thebadeau, is that which terminated hostilities between Spain and Portugal; and having been concluded by Godoy Without the sanction of Bonaparte, was made the pretence, by the latter, for ceding Trinidad to Great Britain at the peace of Amiens.

CHAP. V.

Improvement of the British navy in civil and executive departments—Iron cables—Tanks—Truscott pumps—Breakwater —Dry rot, how counteracted—Instances of Queen Charlotte and Eden—Cleanliness of ships conducive to their preservation—List of ships built in foreign yards, and of foreigu timber in British yards—Sir Robert Seppings's improvements in construction—Round sterns—Diagonal frames—List and dimensions of improved ships—Mr. Bill's iron mast—Sir Robert Seppings's wooden mast—Statement of merchantshipping, and seamen—Marine society—Seamen's hospital— On the great improvement in signals—Laud and sea telegraphs—Observations on the marine and commerce of Europe —Naval inquiry—Opposition to it—Its object, is carried - -Members of the board—Twelve reports—Court-martial on Sir Win. Parker—Decision on neutral claim—Difficulty of defining enemy's property—Capture of French fishingboats—Their release.

The improvement of the British navy in its civil and executive departments, from 1783 to 1803, has been noticed, and proved by the results of our maritime exploits. From the latter period, a new and very important era commences. The succeeding boards of admiralty, with the materials provided by Lord Spencer, have raised a superstructure, on which the fame, security, and prosperity of the British Empire may, under Providence, and awise and upright government, bid defiance to "the world in arms."

The Earl of St. Vincent, while he reformed, the abuses of the civil departments, gave his attention

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