The Legal Regime of Straits: Contemporary Challenges and Solutions
The right of transit passage in straits and the analogous right of archipelagic sealanes passage in archipelagic states, negotiated in the 1970s and embodied in the 1982 UNCLOS, sought to approximate the freedom of navigation and overflight while expressly recognising the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the coastal state over the waters concerned. However, the allocation of rights and duties of the coastal state and third states is open to interpretation. Recent developments in state practice, such as Australia's requirement of compulsory pilotage in the Torres Strait, the bridge across the Great Belt and the proposals for a bridge across the Strait of Messina, the enhanced environmental standards applicable in the Strait of Bonifacio and Canada's claims over the Arctic Route, make it necessary to reassess the whole common law of straits. The Legal Regime of Straits examines the complex relationship between the coastal state and the international community.
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adopted air routes amendment Annex applies archipelagic sea lanes archipelagic waters Article 233 Article 39 Article 43 belligerent bordering straits Caminos Chapter coastal compulsory pilotage concerned Danish Straits designated Draft Articles enforcement exercise flag foreign ships freedom of navigation high seas Ibid ICAO IMO Doc Indonesia innocent passage internal waters International Law international navigation international straits islands Journal of International jurisdiction laws and regulations legal regime Malaysia marine environment maritime MARPOL measures Nandan and Rosenne nautical miles navigation and overflight Official Records 1974 Oxman Philippines pilotage Platz¨oder pollution proposal provisions regime of straits right of archipelagic right of innocent right of passage right of transit rules safety of navigation sea lanes passage seas or EEZ Section ships and aircraft Singapore sovereignty State’s straight baselines Strait of Magellan Straits of Malacca territorial sea traffic separation schemes transit passage Treaty UNCLOS United Kingdom vessels warships