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admit animal and vegetable appear atmosphere basalt beds bodies Buckland calcareous carbonic acid central heat centrifugal force chalk changes climate coal coal-field composed contain created creatures deluge deposits depth diurnal motion earth earth's crust earthquakes effects elevation evident existence extinct animals facts feet fishes fluid formation formed fossils fourth day geological epochs geological theories geologists globe gneiss granite hence hypothesis igneous imagine infer insects islands kingdoms lakes land lava layers lime limestone London Encyclopaedia marine mass means megalosaurus megatherium metamorphic rocks miles mineral world modern geologists motion narrative natural causes occupied ocean oolite opinion organic remains origin peculiar period phenomena philosophers plants and animals plutonic portions present pressure primary rocks produced proof quadrupeds regions rivers salt sand sandstone Scripture shale shells silica species stone strata stratified stratum substances successive creations supposed surface temperature tion vast veins volcanoes wealden wood
Seite 249 - ... of those great deposits of dynamical efficiency which are laid up for human use in our coal strata. By them the waters of the sea are made to circulate in vapour through the air, and irrigate the land, producing springs and rivers. By them are produced all disturbances of the chemical equilibrium of the elements of nature, which, by a series of compositions and decompositions, give rise to new products, and originate a transfer of materials.
Seite 154 - I have elsewhere shown, if the viscera of an animal are so organized as only to be fitted for the digestion of recent flesh, it is also requisite that the jaws should be so constructed as to fit them for devouring prey; the claws must be constructed for seizing and tearing it to pieces; the teeth for cutting and dividing...
Seite 249 - The sun's rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes place on the surface of the earth. By its heat are produced all winds, and those disturbances in the electric equilibrium of the atmosphere which give rise to the phenomena of lightning, and probably also to terrestrial magnetism and the aurora.
Seite 99 - ... of their primeval life; their scaly stems, and bending branches, with their delicate apparatus of foliage, are all spread forth before him ; little impaired by the lapse of countless Ages, and bearing faithful records of extinct systems of vegetation, which began and terminated in times of which these relics are the infallible Historians.
Seite 186 - ... the remains of birds, with those of the same genera mentioned before, in the next order; those of quadrupeds of extinct species in a still more recent class; and it is only in the loose and slightly consolidated strata of gravel and sand, and which are usually called diluvian formations, that the remains of animals such as now people the globe are found, with others belonging to extinct species.
Seite 185 - In those strata which are deepest and which must consequently be supposed to be the earliest deposited, forms even of vegetable life are rare; shells and vegetable remains are found in the next order; the bones of fishes and oviparous reptiles exist in the following class; the remains of birds, with those of the same genera mentioned before, in the next order; those of quadrupeds of extinct species, in a still more recent class...
Seite 249 - ... and when we consider the immense transfer of matter so produced, the increase of pressure over large spaces in the bed of the ocean, and diminution over corresponding portions of the land, we are not at a loss to perceive how the elastic...
Seite 186 - ... types in being. In the oldest secondary strata there are no remains of such animals as now belong to the surface ; and in the rocks, which may be regarded as more recently deposited, these remains occur but rarely, and with abundance of extinct species; — there seems, as it were, a gradual approach to the present system of things, and a succession of destructions and creations preparatory to the existence of man*.
Seite 154 - Every organized individual forms an entire system of its own, all the parts of which mutually correspond, and concur to produce a certain definite purpose, by reciprocal reaction, or by combining towards the same end.
Seite 186 - But, in none of these formations, whether called secondary, tertiary, or diluvial, have the remains of man, or any of his works, been discovered ; and whoever dwells upon this subject must be convinced, that the present order of things, and the comparatively recent existence of man as the master of the globe, is as certain as the destruction of a former and a different order, and the extinction of a number of living forms which have no types in being.